You must present your thesis according to the regulations set out here.
The following outlines the rules for formatting your thesis. Further general guidance can be found below.
These requirements refer primarily to printed copies of theses submitted for examination or deposited after the examination. Electronic copies submitted for examination or deposited after the examination shall be identical in presentation to the printed copies submitted or deposited.
The title page of every volume shall give the following information in the order listed, and on separate lines:
The abstract shall follow the title page. It shall provide a synopsis of the thesis, stating the nature and scope of work undertaken and the contribution made to knowledge in the subject treated. It shall appear on its own on a single page and shall not exceed 300 words in length. The abstract of the thesis may, after the award of the degree, be published by the University in any manner approved by the Senate, and for this purpose, the copyright of the abstract shall be deemed to be vested in the University.
When submitting the thesis, the author shall draw attention to any material contained in it that has been presented before including the full references for any papers published or under review. It should confirm that the work in the thesis is your own, and has not been submitted for examination at this or any other institution for another award. If you have included any published work within your thesis, this needs to be indicated in this section, with full references, as does any collaborative work that you may have undertaken with the names of your colleagues. The minimum required is as follows:
I declare that this thesis is a presentation of original work and I am the sole author. This work has not previously been presented for an award at this, or any other, University. All sources are acknowledged as References.
For further information on formatting your e-thesis, please see our guidance.
In addition to the requirements above, it is recommended that you prepare your thesis using the guidelines set out below.
Not all material may be required but starred* items must appear in every thesis.
All copies shall be legible and of good print quality.
Text may be produced (i) single sided on the front of pages; (ii) mostly single sided, but occasionally printed on the back (e.g. to allow a diagram to face related text); or (iii) on both sides of the paper, providing the paper is opaque enough to avoid show-through.
Text should be set with even or proportionate spacing between words. Word division at the ends of lines should be avoided, if possible.
It is recommended that one-and-a-half line spacing or equivalent is used. Lines that contain mathematical formulae, diacritical marks or strings of capital letters may need additional space. It should be clear when a new paragraph is starting and where matter in the text is being quoted.
Text, in general, should be black and should not be embellished i.e. no general use of coloured text or fancy fonts; no section separators, etc.
It is recommended that, in order to allow for binding, reading, and reproduction, the margin on the binding edge of the page, i.e. the left-hand edge of the front and the right-hand edge of the back of a page, is not less than 40mm, and that other margins are not less than 15mm. The character size and line length should also be taken into account when deciding margin width. Any running heads and page numbers should be within the recommended margins at the top and bottom of the page, and preferably no nearer the edge of the paper than half the margin width. It is recommended that margins around all illustrations and off-prints are no smaller than those of the text, if they are bound into the thesis.
Page headers may be used but, for ease of reading, it is recommended that the font used is smaller than the main body of the text and that no underline is used. Headers should not include personal information, such as your name or student number.
Headings should be used to indicate the hierarchical structure of the text. There should normally be not more than four levels, including the chapter headings as the first level. It is recommended that each level is distinguished from the others by position or typography, or both, and that the space that precedes and follows a heading is not less than the space between paragraphs. Headings should not normally be centred (except, possibly, for chapter and part headings).
Arabic numerals should normally be used for numbering all sequences within a thesis.
For ease of reading, it is recommended that page numbers are visibly clear of the text. The pages of the thesis should be numbered in a single sequence beginning with the title page, which should be counted but not numbered, and including pages that carry tables, illustrations, appendices, etc. The use of blank pages should be avoided, if possible.
Chapters should be numbered from the start to the finish of the thesis, continuing across volumes if necessary. Appendices should be numbered in a separate sequence from that used for chapters.
Illustrations should be numbered consecutively in a single sequence, generally without distinguishing between different kinds of illustration. Tables or Figures within the text should be numbered consecutively in a single sequence, each separate from illustrations.
The components of material that cannot be bound, e.g. frames of a film, should be numbered in a manner appropriate to their form, e.g. 'microfiche frame D7'.
An illustration should normally appear near the first reference made to it in the text. The desirability of grouping illustrations at the back of a volume or in a separate volume should be considered if they need to be compared with one another, are referred to frequently in the text, or need to be separate because of their nature, e.g. their size or method of production.
Illustrations should be of a technical quality that reproduces well.
Every illustration, including appendices and material that cannot be bound, should be included in the list of illustrations with page numbers or other identification.
It is recommended that any label within an illustration is positioned so that the part it applies to cannot be confused with any other, or linked to the part by a thin line; the lettering should be large and clear enough to remain legible when the illustration is photographed and subsequently copied. A short legend should appear beneath each illustration.
It is recommended that photographic prints, if bound with the text, are printed on medium-weight photographic paper (e.g. paper of a thickness equivalent to that of uncoated paper of substance within the range 70 g/m2 to 100 g/m2) or permanently mounted on A4-size card or substantial paper.
If it is necessary to bind in an illustration on a paper size larger than A4, it should be produced on paper that can be folded to fit within the thesis; illustrations should not be pasted across both pages of an open volume.
A bibliographical reference should be given for every work, published or unpublished, cited in the text. Please refer to the Academic Integrity guidelines issued by your department for referencing guidance and expectations.
The bibliography, if present, should list all sources referred to or consulted in writing the thesis, but not necessarily all material relevant to it. A consistent form of presentation should be used for all bibliographical references throughout the thesis.