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How to write a cover letter

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What is a cover letter?

A cover letter (or covering letter) is a document that accompanies your CV when you are applying for jobs. It’s a chance for you to expand on your CV and explain why you’re interested in and qualified for the job.

Letter or email?

It’s unlikely that you’ll actually post a job application, but even when emailing an application many employers still prefer you to attach a cover letter and CV, rather than put the content of your cover letter in the body of your email.

Saying that, don’t worry too much. Just do what the employer asks you to do. If they say to apply with a CV and cover letter, attach a CV and cover letter to your email. If you’re unsure, ask us.

How to lay it out

Set out your cover letter as a formal letter. That means your name and address on the top right and the address of the employer on the left. Include the job title and/or job application reference. Sign off your letter ‘Yours faithfully’ or ‘Yours sincerely’ depending on who you have addressed the letter to (‘Yours sincerely’ when your letter is addressed to a person, ‘Yours faithfully’ when your letter is addressed to the organisation or ‘Sir/Madam’).

What to include

Unless you’re told otherwise, keep your cover letter brief. One side of A4 is enough. Here’s a general structure:

  • Paragraph One: Introduce yourself and explain what’s motivated you to apply for this role. Explain why you want to work for the employer and why you want that specific role.
  • Paragraph Two/three: Explain why you are suited to the role. Highlight your strengths, skills and experiences that are relevant. You can refer to sections of your CV but don’t just repeat what’s on there.
  • Final paragraph: Conclusion. Draw everything together and end on a positive note.


  • If you’re given instructions, follow them. Sometimes you’ll be given a word count or be told to write a cover letter no longer than one page of A4.
  • Remember that your cover letter is a chance to show off your writing style and your ability to be concise. Do not ramble or write your letter like an academic essay.
  • When outlining your skills, refer back to the job description to make it clear how your skills are relevant.
  • If you’re sending a speculative application (applying for a role that isn’t being advertised) try to address your cover letter to a specific person. Letters addressed to the company or to ‘Sir/Madam’ are easily ignored. Use LinkedIn or the company website to find the name of the best person to contact.
  • Proofread, and consider asking a family member or friend to check it. We can give you feedback on your cover letter but we do not provide a proofreading service. Use Texthelp tools to get your computer to read out your answers to help you spot mistakes.

Cover letter examples