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IEEE referencing style

As used in: Computer Science and Electronics

References are numbered in [ ] as sources are introduced in your writing. A full reference list with sources listed according to the order used in the paper is then provided with full source details. Each time the source is referred to the same number will be given. Only published works, those due for publication and unpublished work available in a library or archive are included in citations.

Page numbers are required with citations where material is directly quoted or you refer to a specific part of the source, such as a detail difficult to find. For example [1, p. 3], [2, pp. 5-7], [3, para. 2.1].

These examples are intended to guide your referencing, but it is extremely important to check and follow your Department's specific regulations as they may have alternative preferred formats.

An A to Z of IEEE example citations and references

  • Act of Parliament
    • Reference list : [1] Wireless Telegraphy Act, 2006, c.36. London: The Stationary Office.
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  • Blog (weblog)
    • Reference list: [2] D. Lacey. “Reflections on Infosecurity Europe Week”. 28 Apr 2012. [Blog entry]. David Lacey’s IT Security Blog. Available http://www.computerweekly.com/blogs/david_lacey/2012/04/reflections_on_infosecurity_eu_2.html [Accessed: 30 Apr 2012]
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  • Book (1 author)
    • Reference list: [3] W. K. Chen, Linear Networks and Systems. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1993.
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  • Book (2 authors)
    • Reference list: [4] F. Giannini and G. Leuzzi, Nonlinear Microwave Circuit Design. Chichester: J. Wiley and Sons, 2004.
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  • Book (3 or more authors)
    • Reference list: [5] U. J. Gelinas, et al., Business Processes and Information Technology. Cincinnati: South-Western/Thomson Learning, 2004.
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  • Book (translated from another language)
    • Reference list: [6] M. Gorkii, “Optimal design,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, vol. 12, pp. 111-122, 1961 (Transl.: in L. Pontryagin, Ed., The Mathematical Theory of Optimal Processes. New York: Interscience, 1962, ch. 2, sec. 3, pp. 127-135.

      (This example shows that the book that was read was the English version translated and published by someone else).
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  • Book (read in another language)
    • Reference list:[7] A.N. Zhirabok and A.E. Shumskii, Electronnoe Modelirovanie [Electronic Modelling], Energoatomizdat, Leningrad, 1984 (in Russian).

      (This example shows that you read the book in another language and have given the original title, a translation of it, and the original language).
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  • CD-ROM, with author
    • Reference list: [8] D. Wedding and M. J. Stevens, Psychology: IUPsyS Global Resource [CD-Rom]. Hove: Psychology Press, 2008.
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  • Chapter in an edited book
    • Reference list: [9] D. Ginat, "Overlooking number patterns in algorithmic problem solving," in Number Theory in Mathematics Education: Perspectives and Prospects, R. Zazkis and S. R. Campbell, Eds. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2006, pp. 223-247.
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  • Computer programme (example)
    • Reference list:

      [10] Adobe Illustrator, ver. 9.0, Adobe Systems Incorporated, San Jose, Calif.

      OR

      [10] A. Harriman. (1993, June). Compendium of genealogical software. Humanist. [Online]. Available e-mail: HUMANIST@NYVM.ORG Message: get GENEALOGY REPORT.

      (The author's or creator's name, followed by a comma, may precede the product name. Additional identifying information such as release date may be included after the product name. A commonly used short version or acronym of the name may be included in parentheses immediately after the product name).

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  • Conference paper (unpublished)
    • Reference list: [11] J. Arrillaga and B. Giessner, “Limitation of Short-circuit Levels by Means of HVDC Links,” presented at the IEEE Summer Power meeting, Los Angeles, CA, July 12-17, 1990, Paper 90 SM 690-0 PWRS.
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  • Conference paper (published)
    • Reference list: [12] L. Liu and H. Miao, "A specification based approach to testing polymorphic attributes," in Formal Methods and Software Engineering: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Formal Engineering Methods, ICFEM 2004, Seattle, WA, USA, November 8-12, 2004, J. Davies, W. Schulte, M. Barnett, Eds. Berlin: Springer, 2004. pp. 306-19.
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  • Conference proceedings
    • Reference list: [13] T. J. van Weert and R. K. Munro, Eds., Informatics and the Digital Society: Social, ethical and cognitive issues: IFIP TC3/WG3.1&3.2 Open Conference on Social, Ethical and Cognitive Issues of Informatics and ICT, July 22-26, 2002, Dortmund, Germany. Boston: Kluwer Academic, 2003.
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  • Database online (specific content with author)
    • Reference list: [14] Y. Ralchenko, A.E. Kramida, J. Reader and NIST ASD Team. Na Spectrum Data. National Institute of Standards and Technology atomic spectra database. Version 3.1.5. [Online]. Available http://nist.gov/asd3 [Accessed: 2 April 2010]
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  • Database online (not referring to specific content, without author)
    • Reference list: [15] Oxford Language Dictionaries Online. [Online] Oxford: Oxford University Press. Available: http://www.oxfordlanguagedictionaries.com/ [Accessed: 5 July 2011]
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  • Dictionary (with editor)
    • Reference list: [16] P. Gordon and D. Lawton, Dictionary of British Education. London: Woburn Press, 2003.
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  • Dictionary (without editor)
    • Reference list: [17] Dictionary of Computing and Communications, 6 th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.
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  • DVD
    • Reference list: [18] I. Holm, Narrator, and J. Fullerton-Smith, Producer, How to Build a Human [DVD]. London: BBC; 2002.
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  • E-book (online)
    • Reference list: [19] T. Schlick, Molecular modelling and simulation: an interdisciplinary guide. Springer, 2010. [E-book] Available: http://www.springerlink.com/content/p406v4/#section=745673&page=1 [Accessed: 5 July 2011].

      (If page markers are not available on the e-book version you are using cite the chapter for specific references to the source)

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  • E-book (reader)
    • Reference list: [20] S. Collins, The Hunger Games. [Kindle] Scholastic Fiction, 2011. [E-book] Available: http://www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/B005EGXTEE/ref=s9_simh_gw_p351_d2_g351_i4?pf_rd_m=A3P5ROKL5A1OLE&pf_rd_s=center-2&pf_rd_r=0V3C55RJ3DB412MK834J&pf_rd_t=101&pf_rd_p=467128533&pf_rd_i=468294 [Accessed 21 April 2012].

      (If viewing an e-book using an e-book reader it is important to reference the specific version of the publication for this reader. If page markers are not available on the e-book version you are using cite the chapter for specific references to the source)
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  • E-mail
    • Reference list:[21] J. Smith. (2011, Oct. 10). “RE: Use of IEEE citation.” Personal e-mail.
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  • Edited book
    • Reference list: [22] D. Sarunyagate, Ed., Lasers. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996.
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  • Encyclopaedia (full)
    • Reference list: [23] J. G. Webster, Ed., Wiley Encyclopedia of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1999.
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  • Encyclopaedia (entry)
    • Reference list: [24] O. B. R. Strimpel, "Computer graphics," in McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 8th ed., Vol. 4. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1997, pp. 279-283.
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  • Fax
    • Reference list: Personal communications and non-recoverable information, such as an interview or conversation are not given citation numbers, but should be suitably referred to in the text. For example: “in a fax received from Google’s UK headquarters…”
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  • Government publication
    • Reference list: [25] United Kingdom. Ministry of Defence, Defence ICT Strategy. London: Ministry of Defence; 2010. [Online].  Available: http://www.mod.uk/NR/rdonlyres/251D708B-7080-4B64-ACDF-E069C62C892E/0/modict_strategyv1.pdf. [Accessed: 28 Feb 2012].
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  • Graph/ Table/ Figure from a source
    • In-text: After the title of graph/table/figure, written in CAPITAL LETTERS, give the citation number for the source and the page number the item appears on. For example: A GRAPH [26, p. 10]
    • Reference list: Give the citation number and cite according to the convention for the type of source you are using (book, journal, website).
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  • Interview (conducted by yourself)
    • Reference list: Personal communications and non-recoverable information, such as an interview, lecture or conversation are not given citation numbers, but should be suitably referred to in the text. For example: “In a personal interview with James Dyson…”
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  • Journal article (print copy)
    • Reference list: [27] J. R. Beveridge and E. M. Riseman, "How easy is matching 2D line models using local search?" IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 19, no. 16, pp. 564-579, June 1997.
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  • Journal article (electronic)
    • Reference list: [28] P. H. C. Eilers and J. J. Goeman, "Enhancing scatterplots with smoothed densities," Bioinformatics, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 623-628, March 2004. [Online]. Available: www.oxfordjournals.org. [Accessed: 18 September 2004].
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  • Lecture
    • Reference list: Personal communications and non-recoverable information, such as an interview, lecture or conversation are not given citation numbers, but should be suitably referred to in the text. For example: “In a lecture by Bill Gates…”
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  • Lecture notes
    • Reference list: Personal communications and non-recoverable information, such as an interview, lecture or conversation are not given citation numbers, but should be suitably referred to in the text. For example: “In a lecture by James Dyson to the Confederation of British Industry in June 2010”
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  • Letter
    • Reference list: Personal communications and non-recoverable information, such as an interview, lecture or conversation are not given citation numbers, but should be suitably referred to in the text. For example: “In a letter to the author from Alan Sugar…”
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  • Manual/ handbook
    • Reference list: [29] FAX-B840/B820/B822 Users Manual, Canon Inc., Tokyo, Japan, 2004.
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  • Magazine article
    • Reference list: [30] “Engineering Doctorate Showcased”, The University of York Magazine, p. 5, February 2010.
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  • Microfiche
    • Reference list: [31] A.F.I.P.S., American Federation of Information Processing Societies. Conference Proceedings, vol. 33, 1968, Montvale, N.J. [Microfiche] Available J.B. Morrell Library, University of York. [Accessed 26 March 2012].

      (Each one will have titles and references within it or you can refer to the actual microfiche record number, where it is stored and when accessed. Here it is referenced as conference proceedings with additional information as to the location of the microfiche)
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  • Newspaper article (with author)
    • Reference list: [32] N. Perpitch, "Green groups battle to overturn gas plan," The Australian, p. 2, Sept. 7, 2010.
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  • Newspaper article (no author)
    • Reference list: [33] "Editorial: French elections. Bitter-sweet victory for the left," The Guardian, p. 26, Apr. 23, 2012.
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  • Online video
    • Reference list: [34] YouTube. “Tutorial on Setting up LaTeX”. Youtube.com. [Online]. Available http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jt8_7IRaETw [Accessed: 20 March 2012].
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  • Pamphlet/ booklet
    • Reference list: [35] Graduate Students’ Association, Graduate Guide 2011. York Graduate Students’ Association, 2011.
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  • Patent
    • Reference list: [36] J. P. Wilkinson, “Nonlinear resonant circuit devices,” U.S. Patent 3 624 125, July 16, 1990.

      (Use “issued date” if several dates are given).

    • Close section
  • Photograph
    • In-text: After the photograph title, written beneath the image in CAPITAL LETTERS give the citation number for the source and the page number it appears on. For example: A PICTURE [37, p. 2]
    • Reference list: Give the citation number and cite according to the convention for the type of source you are using (book, journal, website).
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  • Podcast
    • Reference list: [38] BBC Radio 1, Best of Chris Moyles: Tulisa Stands in for Dave. BBC Radio 1: 2012. [Podcast]. Available: http://downloads.bbc.co.uk/podcasts/radio1/moyles/moyles_20120406-0130a.mp3 [Accessed: 19 April 2012].
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  • Radio Programme
    • Reference list: [39] R. Aedy, Interviewer, D. Hector, Interviewee, and S. Clark, Producer, "The future of engineering," The Buzz, 25 Sept., 2004 [Radio broadcast]. Sydney: ABC Radio.
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  • Reports
    • Reference list: [40] R. E. Haskell and C. T. Case, “Transient signal propagation in lossless isotropic plasmas,” USAF Cambridge Res. Labs., Cambridge, MA, Rep. ARCRL-66-234 (II), 1994, vol.2.
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  • Review
    • Reference list: Quote the source of the review as for newspaper, magazine, website, giving the author where known.
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  • Secondary referencing
    • Reference list: IEEE does not use secondary sources so you should search for the original source. If this cannot be found it should not be cited.
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  • Sound recording (CD, vinyl, cassette)
    • Reference list: [41] D. Fisher, Writer, and T. Baker, Presenter, Doctor Who and the Creature from the Pit [Sound recording]. Bath, UK: BBC Audiobooks, 2009.
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  • Standard
    • Reference list: [42] IEEE Criteria for Class IE Electric Systems, IEEE Standard 308, 1969.
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  • Telephone conversation
    • Reference list: Personal communications and non-recoverable information, such as an interview, lecture or conversation are not given citation numbers, but should be suitably referred to in the text. For example: “In a telephone conversation with the author, Professor John Smith explained…”
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  • Text message
    • Reference list: Personal communications and non-recoverable information, such as an interview or conversation are not given citation numbers, but should be suitably referred to in the text. For example: “In a text message to the author, Dr Jane Doe confirmed…”
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  • Thesis
    • Reference list: [43] J. O. Williams, “Narrow-band analyser,” Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Elect. Eng., Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MW, 1993.
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  • TV programme
    • Reference list: [44] J. Clarkson, Reporter, The Ford Mondeo. Top Gear, 1 Jan., 2012 [Television broadcast]. London: BBC2 Television.
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  • Twitter/tweets
    • Reference list: [45] @IEEEorg. RT @IEEEInstitute IEEE has launched a new Web Portal Dedicated to Transportation Electrification: http://bit.ly/qM5FiJ. 20 Apr 2012. [Tweet]. Available http://twitter.com/#!/ieeeorg [Accessed: 27 April 2012].

      (Use either the proper name of the author or Twitter pseudonym. In this example either ‘IEEE’ or ‘@IEEEorg’ can be used in the reference)
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  • VLE
    • Reference list: [46] ELDT. “Help Guide: Blogs in Yorkshare: An Overview". University of York [Online]. Available: https://vle.york.ac.uk/bbcswebdav/institution/E-Learning%20Development%20Team/Guides/Bb%20Blog%20--%20Overview.html [Accessed: 19 April 2012].

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  • Website (with author)
    • Reference list: [47] J. Amos (2012, Feb. 12). “Eavesdropping on the Squid World”. BBC News [Online]. Available: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-17117194. [Accessed: Feb. 27, 2012].
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  • Website (with no author)
    • Reference list: [48] Apple. "IEEE Standards Power & Energy Dictionary,"  itunes.apple.com. [Online]. Available: http://itunes.apple.com/us/app/ieee-standards-power-energy/id491148158?mt=8?WT.mc_id=tm_proj_pe [Accessed: Feb. 27, 2012].
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  • Wiki
    • Reference list: [49] Wikipedia. “Green Computing”, Wikipedia.org. [Online]. Available http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Green_computing [Last Modified: 15 March 2012, 07:05].
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Last Updated: September 5, 2013 | integrity@york.ac.uk

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Last Updated: September 5, 2013 | integrity@york.ac.uk

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