Click here to download the Chicago style Guide.

Chicago referencing style

As used in: English (as well as MLA), History, and History of Art.

The guide has been compiled using The Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed.).

Chicago is a style using footnotes to detail in-text citations, with a reference list/ bibliography of all sources cited, presented at the end of the piece of work in alphabetical order by author.

It is important to give page numbers for in-text citations in the following circumstances:

  • when quoting directly
  • when referring to a specific detail in a text (for example, a specific theory or idea, an illustration, a table, a set of statistics)
  • when giving a paraphrase or summary of a text.

Examples below show the full footnote for different sources and a shortened version for if the source is cited again. A corresponding reference that would appear in the reference list/ bibliography is also given. It is important also to note in some examples where departments have a particular preference regarding the information to include in the references.


February 2014: 'Reference with Confidence: The Chicago Style' PDF guide has been updated. The guide now includes specific information for History of Art students, as well as revised guidance for English and History students. The revisions have been made in consultation with, and approve by the departments.

An A to Z of Chicago example citations and references

Click here for this popup: Commonly used sources

Click here for this popup: Other sources

Last Updated:February, 26 2014 |

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