The aim of the ABFAB project is to investigate attitudes to regional accents in Britain today, and the effects that accent bias may or may not have on access to the professions among speakers of different varieties of English in the UK. Combining methods from linguistics, psychology, and economics, the project will focus on the role of accent and other speech factors in people's ability to judge competence in hiring contexts, both members of the public and recruiters in law firms in London and Leeds.
Theoretical accounts of the strategies used by children to learn the structures of words and grammatical features of languages differ considerably, but our knowledge of what is possible is limited by the existing focus on a relatively small number of languages associated with industrialised nations. Here, we investigate grammatical features and structures that may be expressed in a variety of different ways. Examples of grammatical features include number (eg the distinction between singular and plural), or gender (eg distinguishing masculine and feminine in languages like French), features expressed within the shape of the word and associated items. Grammatical structure may be manifested in agreement across the separate words of a noun phrase. This project investigates the acquisition of inflectional morphology, ie grammatical features and structures as reflected in the word forms and associated agreement, in Gújjolaay Eegimaa, a language of the Atlantic family of the Niger Congo phylum spoken in Southern Senegal. This language has a gender system of the type traditionally known as a noun class system. Noun class systems with complex gender agreement are characteristic of the Niger-Congo languages.
This project explores the properties of the mass/count distinction across languages focusing specifically on languages that display the peculiar property of "plural mass nouns" (There were waterS on the floor). We employ experimental as well as theoretical techniques in order to establish the relevant syntactic and semantic properties of these languages and more generally understand the ways in which languages can vary in the ways they encode the distinction between objects and substances.
There are two main strands to this project: one sociophonetic, the other forensic. On the sociophonetic side, our interest is in the relationship between mobility and social class as a predictor of accent variation in urban north-east England. The emphasis here is on group-level linguistic differences. What does it mean to say that speech forms are localised versus supralocal? What makes north-eastern accents distinct, yet similar? On the forensic side, we take a Bayesian reasoning approach, focussing on individual speaker differences in long-term spectral features that we hypothesise to be essentially accent-independent. The goal is to test the viability of combining the database of recordings we collect for the TUULS project with an existing database, DyViS, which represents a highly dissimilar variety (viz., Southern Standard British English). Should interspeaker differences within the two respective accent groups be greater than differences between them, we can justify combining TUULS and DyViS into a single, much larger reference population. Significant benefits would be brought with respect to cost and time savings in speaker comparison work if we can demonstrate that the collection of case-specific reference data is generally unnecessary.
The aim of the project is to compare the performance of different methods for forensic voice (or speaker) comparison – from linguistics and phonetics, acoustics, and automatic speaker recognition (ASR) – on the same set of recordings. We will explore the performance of the methods to assess their relative strengths, the consistency of their results and error patterns, and thus the potential for different methods to be integrated into a single framework. The ultimate aim is to improve methods in forensic voice comparison, taking a major step towards the development of a methodology that is more transparent, validated, and replicable. This outcome will benefit academics and forensic practitioners, the public, judicial systems, and investigative/security agencies.
Our team specialises in the study of phonological development. Our research focuses on infants and toddlers, including observational studies of production and experimental studies of word recognition and word learning. We study the relationship between babble and early words, and the shaping of a child's knowledge of the sound system of the language they are learning. We also study how the speech of the adults around them affects infants' learning.