Developmental Biology Research Foci

 
Cell and Developmental Biology

At York we investigate developmental mechanisms using a wide variety of model organisms, including mouse, frog, flies and Arabidopsis. We also employ different experimental approaches from molecular genetics to experimental embryology in order to understand the complex processes that regulate plant and animal development.

Impact

Developmental mechanisms are highly conserved among animals and often genes that are important in human development are also important in cancer and other degenerative diseases. Therefore, basic research in model systems will ultimately underpin the development of new treatments for human disease.

Impacting on health and disease

SEM AM1

York scientists work with leading academic clinicians and scientists in engineering, biology and material science with the aim of regenerating bone and cartilage by using the patients’ own stem cells to repair joint damage caused by osteoarthritis

3D-MSCs1

3D gene knockout tissue models using adult human stem cells
This study will use new gene knockout technology in adult stem cells from human bone marrow, to find out how this affects their ability to form 3D micro-skeletons in the laboratory. The work will add to our understanding of gene function in stem cells and contribute to the replacement of mouse knockout experiments.

Examples of Cell and Developmental Biology projects

Segmented Muscle

‌Making segmented muscle
MyoD is a master regulator of skeletal muscle development in vertebrates. Work in the Pownall lab reveals a novel function for MyoD in regulating genes important for somite formation as well as an unexpected ancestral link between the molecular mechanisms that regulate skeletal muscle lineage determination and genes important for somitogenesis.

Leaf Shape

Leaf Analyser
A comprehensive understanding of leaf shape variation is important in plant developmental biology. The LeafAnalyser software developed in the Waites lab exploits image analysis methods for high-throughput analysis of leaf shape variation that can be visualised in a higher dimensional phenotypic space.

Pattening Neural Progentitors

A conserved mechanism for patterning neural progenitors
The Isaacs lab has found that the Gsx family homeodomain transcription factors are expressed in a highly conserved domain within the nervous system of bilaterally symmetrical animals.  Our study indicates that since the divergence of the protostome and deuterostome lineages some of Gsx mediated regulatory interactions have been conserved, while there has also been considerable divergence in function.

Academic staff associated with Cell and Developmental Biology

Professor Nia Bryant, Chair of  Cell Biology, Regulation of intracellular membrane traffic.

Dr Sangeeta Chawla, Lecturer: response of neuronal transcription to growth factors; synaptic activity; gene expression programmes underlying neuronal differentiation and synaptic plasticity; neurodegenerative diseases.

Dr Mark Coles, Senior Lecturer: role of neural crest derived stromal cells in the development and function of the thymus; lymph node organogenesis, cellular origin of lymph node stroma, T and B cell zone stroma differentiation.

Dr Paul Genever, Reader: differentiation of tissue function in skeletal systems; signalling mechanisms in adult stem cell fate, tissue remodelling, repair and regeneration; tissue engineering and disease treatment.

Dr Mike Haydon, Lecturer: molecular and physiological adaptation to environment; integration of sugar and light signalling in plants.

Dr Harry Isaacs, Reader: Fibroblast Growth factor signalling in early development; Gsx homeodomain transcription factors that are regulators of neurogenesis in the amphibian primary nervous system.

Dr Louise Jones, Lecturer: RNA biology and post-transcriptional control of gene expression; RNA silencing; epigenetic changes DNA methylation and histone modification.

Dr Betsy Pownall, Reader: developmental cell signalling using the non-mammalian model organisms Xenopus and zebrafish; FGF signalling, tyrosine kinases heparan sulfate proteoglycans.

Dr Paul Pryor, Lecturer: biogenesis of lysosomes and phagolysosomes; membrane traffic; host-pathogen interactions; phagocytosis.

Dr Nathalie Signoret, Lecturer: role of chemokine receptors in regulating mononuclear phagocyte function during immune responses.

Professor Deborah F Smith, OBE, Head of Department: kinetoplastid parasites including Leishmania, Trypanosoma brucei, mechanisms of invasion and adaptation, development of new therapeutics.

Dr Sean Sweeney, Lecturer: endosomes in regulating signals controlling synapse growth; lysosomal storage diseases; neurodegeneration.

Dr Daniel Ungar, Lecturer: molecular mechanisms of vesicle targeting, glycosylation homeostasis in the secretory pathway.

Dr Richard Waites, Lecturer: genetics and evolution of plant leaf shape; functional significance of leaf shape variation.

 

 

expressed motorneuron cell bodies - Radhika Sreedhar and Sean Sweeney

Examples of high profile publications

Photosynthetic entrainment of the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian clock. Haydon et al. 2013, Nature

Oxidative stress induces overgrowth of the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. Milton et al. 2011, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A

EphB-ephrin-B2 interactions are required for thymus migration during organogenesis. Foster et al. 2010, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A

Lin28 proteins are required for germ layer specification in Xenopus. Faas et al. 2013, Development