Accessibility statement

Daniel H. Baker



Daniel studies sensory perception, particularly vision, using a range of methods including psychophysics, EEG, MRI, MEG and computational modelling. He also has interests in conditions such as amblyopia and autism. He has been a member of faculty at York since 2013. Daniel mostly teaches research methods, and is a chartered statistician and fellow of the Royal Statistical Society.


  • 2023-now - Professor, University of York
  • 2017-2023  - Senior Lecturer, University of York
  • 2013-2017 - Lecturer, University of York
  • 2009-2012 - Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Aston University
  • 2007-2009 - Postdoctoral Research Fellow, University of Southampton
  • 2004-2007 - PhD in Human Vision, Aston University
  • 2000-2003 - BSc(Hons) Psychology, University of Nottingham

Departmental roles

  • Deputy Head of Department for Professional & Personal Development
  • Chair of the Board of Examiners

University roles



Human vision, binocular vision, spatial vision, masking, amblyopia, binocular rivalry, computational modelling, psychophysical methods

Research group(s)

Joel Martin, postdoctoral research associate

Lauren Welbourne, postdoctoral research associate

Federico Segala, postdoctoral research associate

Anisa Morsi, postdoctoral research associate

Josephine Flockton, PhD student, primary supervisor

Kirralise Hansford, PhD student, second supervisor

Shasha Wei, PhD student, primary supervisor


2023 - Enhancing Research Culture award, 'ReproduceMe: a pilot project for computational reproducibility' (£10000)

2022 - BBSRC Impact Acceleration Account, 'Imaging human circadian rhythm networks' (£9500)

2021 - BBSRC research grant, 'Non-canonical binocular pathways in human vision' (£595896)

2015 - Centre for Chronic Diseases and Disorders (C2D2) Career Establishment Grant, "Objective measures of visual improvement in amblyopia following treatment" (£99875)

2014 - University of York strategic capital funding, "An MRI-compatible 3D projector" (£39659)

2013 - Royal Society Research Grant, "Binocular architecture of lateral inhibitory processes in human vision" (£13434).



Selected publications

Front cover of Research Methods Using R

Baker, D.H. (2022). Research Methods Using R: Advanced Data Analysis in the Behavioural and Biological Sciences. Oxford University Press, ISBN: 9780192896599, [preprint] [ebook] [ebook] [GitHub] [website].

Full publications list

See also my Google scholar profile, York Research Database profile, and this list of published abstracts.

  1. Baker, D.H., Marinova, D., Aveyard, R., Hargreaves, L.J., Renton, A., Castellani, R., Hall, P.,  Harmens, M., Holroyd, G., Nicholson, B., Williams, E.L., Hobson, H.M. & Wade, A.R. (2023). Temporal dynamics of normalization reweighting, Journal of Vision, 23(12):6, [DOI].
  2. Segala, F.G., Bruno, A., Martin, J.T, Aung, M.T., Wade, A.R. & Baker, D.H. (2023). Different rules for binocular combination of luminance flicker in cortical and subcortical pathways, eLife, 12: RP87048, [DOI].
  3. Nebe, S., Reutter, M., Baker, D.H., Bölte, J., Domes, G., Gamer, M., Gärtner, A., Gießing, C., Gurr, C., Hilger, K., Jawinski, P., Kulke, L., Lischke, A., Markett, S., Meier, M., Merz, C.J., Popov, T., Puhlmann, L.M.C., Quintana, D.S., Schäfer, T., Schubert, A., Sperl, M.F.J., Vehlen, A., Lonsdorf, T.B & Feld, G.B. (2023). Enhancing precision in human neuroscience, eLife, 12: e85980, [DOI].
  4. Martin, J.T., Boynton, G.M., Baker, D.H., Wade, A.R. & Spitschan, M. (2023). Psysilsub: An open-source Python toolbox for implementing the method of silent substitution in vision and nonvisual photoreception research, Journal of Vision, 23(7): 10, 1-16, [DOI].
  5. Hansford, K.J., Baker, D.H., McKenzie, K.J. & Preston, C.E.J. (2023). Distinct neural signatures of multimodal resizing illusions, Neuropsychologia, 187: 108622, [DOI].
  6. Bruno, A., Segala, F.G. & Baker, D.H. (2023). A purely visual adaptation to motion can differentiate between perceptual timing and interval timing, Proc R Soc B, 290: 20230415, [DOI].
  7. Meese, T.S., Baker, D.H. & Summers, R.J. (2023). Blurring the boundary between models and reality: visual perception of scale assessed by performance, PLoS ONE, 18(5): e0285423, [DOI].
  8. Meese, T.S. & Baker, D.H. (2023). Object image size is a fundamental coding dimension in human vision: new insights and model. Neuroscience, 514: 79-91, [DOI].
  9. Dahlmann-Noor, A., Greenwood, J.A., Skilton, A., Baker, D.H., Ludden, S., Davis, A., Dehbi, H. & Dakin, S.C. (2022). Phase 2a randomised controlled feasibility trial of a new ‘Balanced Binocular Viewing’ treatment for unilateral amblyopia in children age 3-8 years: trial protocol. BMJ Open, 12(5): e051423, [DOI].
  10. Baker, D.H., Summers, R.J., Baldwin, A.S. & Meese, T.S. (2022). A psychophysical performance-based approach to the quality assessment of image processing algorithms. PLoS ONE, 17(5): e0267056, [DOI].
  11. Heywood-Everett, E., Baker, D.H. & Hartley, T. (2022). Testing the precision of spatial memory representations using a change-detection task: effects of viewpoint change. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 34(1): 127-141, [DOI].
  12. Knowland, V.C.P., Baker, D.H., Gaskell, G., van Rijn, E., Walker, S.A., Norbury, C. & Henderson, L. (2022). Neural responses to novel and existing words in children with autism spectrum and developmental language disorders, Journal of Cognition, 5(1): 14, [DOI].
  13. Baker, D.H., Vilidaite, G. & Wade, A.R. (2021). Steady-state measures of visual suppression. PLoS Computational Biology, 17(10): e1009507, [DOI].
  14. Baker, D.H. (2021). Statistical analysis of periodic data in neuroscience. Neurons, Behavior, Data Analysis and Theory, 5(3): 1-18, [DOI].
  15. Baker, D.H., Vilidaite, G., Lygo, F.A., Smith, A.K., Flack, T.R., Gouws, A.D. & Andrews, T.J. (2021). Power contours: optimising sample size and precision in experimental psychology and human neuroscience. Psychological Methods, 26(3): 295-314, [DOI].
  16. Lygo, F., Richard, B., Wade, A.R., Morland, A.B. & Baker, D.H. (2021). Neural markers of suppression in impaired binocular vision. Neuroimage, 230: 117780, [DOI].
  17. Gray, K.L.H., Flack, T.R., Yu, M., Lygo, F.A. & Baker, D.H. (2020). Nonlinear transduction of emotional facial expression. Vision Research, 170: 1-11, [DOI].
  18. Baker, D.H., Vilidaite, G., McClarnon, E., Valkova, E., Bruno, A. & Millman, R.E. (2020). Binaural summation of amplitude modulation involves weak interaural suppression. Scientific Reports, 10: 3560, [DOI].
  19. Ho, N.S.P., Baker, D.H., Karapanagiotidis, T., Seli, P., Wang, H.T., Leech, R., Bernhardt, B., Margulies, D., Jefferies, E. & Smallwood, J. (2020). Missing the forest because of the trees: slower alternations during binocular rivalry are associated with lower levels of visual detail during ongoing thought. Neuroscience of Consciousness, 6(1): niaa020, [DOI].
  20. Coggan, D.D., Giannakopoulou, A., Ali, S., Goz, B., Watson, D.M., Hartley, T., Baker, D.H. & Andrews, T.J. (2019). A data-driven approach to stimulus selection reveals an image-based representation of objects in high-level visual areas. Human Brain Mapping, 40(16): 4716-4731, [DOI].
  21. Coggan, D.D., Baker, D.H. & Andrews, T.J. (2019). Selectivity for mid-level properties of faces and places in the fusiform face area and parahippocampal place area. European Journal of Neuroscience, 49: 1587-1596, [DOI].
  22. Baker, D.H. & Richard, B. (2019). Dynamic properties of internal noise probed by modulating binocular rivalry, PLoS Computational Biology, 15(6): e1007071, [DOI].
  23. Kang, S., Hayashi, Y., Bruyns-Haylett, M., Baker, D.H., Boura, M., Wang, X., Karatzas, K., Serra, I., Bithell, A., Williams, C., Field, D.T. & Zheng, Y. (2019). Supplemental vitamin B-12 enhances the neural response to sensory stimulation in the barrel cortex of healthy rats but does not affect spontaneous neural activity. Journal of Nutrition, 149(5): 730-737, [DOI].
  24. Vilidaitė, G., Marsh, E. & Baker, D.H. (2019). Internal noise in contrast discrimination propagates forwards from early visual cortex. Neuroimage, 191: 503-517, [DOI].
  25. Vilidaite, G., Norcia, A.M., West, R.J.H., Elliott, C.J.H., Pei, F., Wade, A.R. & Baker, D.H. (2018). Autism sensory dysfunction in an evolutionarily conserved system. Proc R Soc B, 285(1893): 20182255, [DOI].
  26. Baker, D.H., Lygo, F.A., Meese, T.S. & Georgeson, M.A. (2018). Binocular summation revisited: beyond √2. Psychological Bulletin, 144(11): 1186-1199, [DOI].
  27. Benjamin, A.V., Wailes-Newson, K., Ma-Wyatt, A., Baker, D.H. & Wade, A.R. (2018). The effect of locomotion on early visual contrast processing in humans. Journal of Neuroscience, 38(12): 3050-3059, [DOI].
  28. Richard, B., Chadnova, E. & Baker, D.H. (2018). Binocular vision adaptively suppresses delayed monocular signals. Neuroimage, 172: 753-765, [DOI].
  29. Chadnova, E., Reynaud, A., Clavagnier, S., Baker, D.H., Baillet, S. & Hess, R.F. (2018). Interocular interaction of contrast and luminance signals in human primary visual cortex. Neuroimage, 167: 23-30, [DOI].
  30. Vilidaite, G. & Baker, D.H. (2018). Psychophysical measurement of the effects and non-effects of TMS on contrast perception. Brain Stimulation, 11(4): 956-957, [DOI].
  31. Pirrone, A., Wen, W., Li, S., Baker, D.H. & Milne, E. (2018). Autistic traits in the neurotypical population do not predict increased response conservativeness in perceptual decision making. Perception, 47: 1081-1096, [DOI].
  32. Meese, T.S., Baker. D.H. & Summers, R.J. (2017). Perception of global image contrast involves transparent spatial filtering and the integration and suppression of local contrasts (not root-mean-square contrast). Royal Society Open Science, 4: 170285, [DOI].
  33. Vilidaitė, G., Yu, M. & Baker, D.H. (2017) Internal noise estimates correlate with autistic traits. Autism Research, 10(8): 1384-1391, [DOI].
  34. Coggan, D.D., Allen, L.A., Farrar, O.R.H., Gouws, A.D., Morland, A.B., Baker, D.H. & Andrews, T.J. (2017). Differences in selectivity to natural images in early visual areas (V1-V3). Scientific Reports, 7: 2444, [DOI].
  35. Cunningham, D.G.M., Baker, D.H. & Peirce, J.W. (2017). Measuring nonlinear signal combination using EEG. Journal of Vision, 17(5): 10, [DOI].
  36. Smith, A.K., Wade, A.R., Penkman, K.E.H. & Baker, D.H. (2017). Dietary modulation of cortical excitation and inhibition. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 31(5): 632-637, [DOI].
  37. Baker, D.H. & Wade, A.R. (2017). Evidence for an optimal algorithm underlying signal combination in human visual cortex. Cerebral Cortex, 27: 254-264, [DOI].
  38. Baker, D.H. (2017). Decoding eye-of-origin outside of awareness. Neuroimage, 147: 89-96, [DOI].
  39. Vilidaite, G. & Baker, D.H. (2017). Individual differences in internal noise are consistent across two measurement techniques. Vision Research, 141: 30-39, [DOI].
  40. Baker, D.H., Kaestner, M. & Gouws, A.D. (2016). Measurement of crosstalk in stereoscopic display systems used for vision research. Journal of Vision, 16(15): 14, [DOI].
  41. Georgeson, M.A., Wallis, S.A., Meese, T.S. & Baker, D.H. (2016). Contrast and lustre: a model that accounts for eleven different forms of contrast discrimination in binocular vision. Vision Research, 129: 98-118, [DOI].
  42. Coggan, D.D., Baker, D.H. & Andrews, T.J. (2016). The role of visual and semantic properties in the emergence of category-specific patterns of neural response in the human brain. eNeuro, 3(4): e0158-16.2016, 1-10, [DOI].
  43. Baker, D.H. & Meese, T.S. (2016). Grid-texture mechanisms in human vision: Contrast detection of regular sparse micro-patterns requires specialist templates. Scientific Reports, 6: 29764, [DOI].
  44. Coggan, D.D., Liu, W., Baker, D.H. & Andrews, T.J. (2016). Category-selective patterns of neural response in the ventral visual pathway in the absence of categorical information. Neuroimage, 135: 107-114, [DOI].
  45. Baldwin, A.S., Baker, D.H. & Hess, R.F. (2016). What do contrast threshold equivalent noise studies actually measure? Noise vs. nonlinearity in different masking paradigms. PLoS ONE, 11(3): e0150942, [DOI].
  46. Brattan, V.C., Baker, D.H. & Tipper, S.P. (2015). Spatiotemporal judgments of observed actions: contrasts between first- and third-person perspectives after motor priming. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 41(5): 1236-1246, [DOI].
  47. Baker, D.H., Karapanagiotidis, T., Coggan, D.D., Wailes-Newson, K. & Smallwood, J. (2015). Brain networks underlying bistable perception. Neuroimage, 119: 229-234, [DOI].
  48. Zhou, J., Baker, D.H., Simard, M., Saint-Amour, D. & Hess, R.F. (2015). Short-term monocular patching boosts the patched eye’s response in visual cortex. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, 33(3): 381-387, [DOI].
  49. Vilidaitė, G. & Baker, D.H. (2015). Unbiased measures of interocular transfer of motion adaptation. Perception, 44(5): 541-555, [DOI].
  50. Manning, C. & Baker, D.H. (2015). Response to Davis and Plaisted-Grant: Psychophysical data do not support the low noise account of autism. Autism, 19(3): 365-366, [DOI].
  51. Baker, D.H., Simard, M., Saint-Amour, D. & Hess, R.F. (2015). Steady-state contrast response functions provide a sensitive and objective index of amblyopic deficits. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 56: 1208-1216, [DOI].
  52. Summers, R.J., Baker, D.H. & Meese, T.S. (2015). Area summation of first- and second-order modulations of luminance. Journal of Vision, 15(1):12, 1-13, [DOI].
  53. Johnston, P., Baker, D.H., Stone, R. & Kaufman, J. (2014). Thatcher’s Britain: a new take on an old illusion. Perception, 43(12): 1400-1403, [DOI].
  54. Baker, D.H. & Vilidaitė, G. (2014). Broadband noise masks suppress neural responses to narrowband stimuli. Frontiers in Psychology, 5: 763, [DOI].
  55. Zhou, J., McNeal, S., Babu, R.J., Baker, D.H., Bobier, W. & Hess, R.F. (2014). Time course of dichoptic masking in normals and suppression in amblyopes. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 55: 4098-4104, [DOI].
  56. Baker, D.H. & Meese, T.S. (2014). Measuring the spatial extent of texture pooling using reverse correlation. Vision Research, 97: 52-58, [DOI].
  57. Hess, R.F., Thompson, B. & Baker, D.H. (2014). Binocular vision in amblyopia: structure, suppression and plasticity. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 34: 146-162 [DOI].
  58. Baker, D.H. & Cass, J.R. (2013). A dissociation of performance and awareness during binocular rivalry. Psychological Science, 24(12): 2563-2568, [DOI].
  59. Baker, D.H. & Meese, T.S. (2013). Regarding the benefit of zero-dimensional noise. Journal of Vision, 13(10): 26, 1-6, [DOI].
  60. Baker, D.H. (2013). What is the primary cause of individual differences in contrast sensitivity? PLoS ONE, 8(7): e69536, [DOI].
  61. Brascamp, J.W. & Baker, D.H. (2013). Psychophysics of binocular rivalry. In Miller, S.M. (ed.) The constitution of visual consciousness: lessons from binocular rivalry, 109-140. John Benjamins, Amsterdam. [Book] [Amazon]
  62. Patryas, L., Parry, N.R.A., Carden, D., Baker, D.H., Kelly, J.M.F., Aslam, T. & Murray, I.J. (2013). Assessment of age changes and repeatability for computer-based rod dark adaptation. Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, 251(7): 1821-1827, [DOI].
  63. Baker, D.H., Meese, T.S. & Georgeson, M.A. (2013). Paradoxical psychometric functions (“swan functions”) are explained by dilution masking in four stimulus dimensions. i-Perception, 4(1): 17-35, [DOI].
  64. Meese, T.S. & Baker, D.H. (2013). A common rule for integration and suppression of luminance contrast across eyes, space, time, and pattern. i-Perception, 4(1): 1-16, [DOI].
  65. Wallis, S.A., Baker, D.H., Meese, T.S. & Georgeson, M.A. (2013). The slope of the psychometric function and non-stationarity of thresholds in spatiotemporal contrast vision. Vision Research, 76: 1-10, [DOI].
  66. Huang, P.C., Baker, D.H. & Hess, R.F. (2012). Interocular suppression in normal and amblyopic vision: spatio-temporal properties. Journal of Vision, 12(11): 29, 1-12, [DOI].
  67. Baldwin, A.S., Meese, T.S. & Baker, D.H. (2012). The attenuation surface for contrast sensitivity has the form of a witch’s hat within the central visual field. Journal of Vision,12(11): 23, 1-17, [DOI].
  68. Baker, D.H. & Meese, T.S. (2012) Zero-dimensional noise: The best mask you never saw. Journal of Vision, 12(10): 20, 1-12, [DOI].
  69. Baker, D.H. & Meese, T.S. (2012) Interocular transfer of spatial adaptation is weak at low spatial frequencies. Vision Research, 63: 81-87, [DOI].
  70. Baker, D.H., Wallis, S.A., Georgeson, M.A. & Meese, T.S. (2012) The effect of interocular phase difference on perceived contrast. PLoS ONE, 7(4): e34696, [DOI].
  71. Baker, D.H., Wallis, S.A., Georgeson, M.A. & Meese, T.S. (2012) Nonlinearities in the binocular combination of luminance and contrast. Vision Research, 56(1): 1-9, [DOI].
  72. Baker, D.H. & Meese, T.S. (2011) Contrast integration over area is extensive: a three stage model of spatial summation. Journal of Vision, 11(14), 14, 1-16, [DOI].
  73. Meese, T.S. & Baker, D.H. (2011) A re-evaluation of achromatic spatiotemporal mechanisms: evidence for non-oriented monocular filters that are adaptable at high flicker speeds. i-Perception, 2(2): 159-182, [DOI].
  74. Meese, T.S. & Baker, D.H. (2011) Contrast summation across eyes and space is revealed along the entire dipper function by a “Swiss cheese” stimulus. Journal of Vision, 11(1): 23, 1-23, [DOI].
  75. Baker, D.H. (2010) Visual consciousness: the binocular rivalry explosion. Current Biology, 20(15): R644-R646, [DOI].
  76. Baker, D.H. & Graf, E.W. (2010) Extrinsic factors in the perception of bistable motion stimuli. Vision Research, 50(13): 1257-1265, [DOI].
  77. Baker, D.H. & Graf, E.W. (2010) Contextual effects in speed perception may occur at an early stage of processing. Vision Research, 50(2): 193-201, [DOI].
  78. Meese, T.S., Challinor, K.L., Summers, R.J. & Baker, D.H. (2009) Suppression pathways saturate with contrast for parallel surrounds but not superimposed cross-oriented masks. Vision Research, 49(24): 2927-2935, [DOI].
  79. Meese, T.S. & Baker, D.H. (2009) Cross-orientation masking is speed invariant between ocular pathways but speed dependent within them. Journal of Vision, 9(5): 2, 1-15, [DOI].
  80. Baker, D.H. & Graf, E.W. (2009) Natural images dominate in binocular rivalry. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(13): 5436-5441, [DOI].
  81. Baker, D.H. & Graf, E.W. (2009) On the relation between dichoptic masking and binocular rivalry. Vision Research, 49(4): 451-459, [DOI].
  82. Baker, D.H., Meese, T.S. & Hess, R.F. (2008) Contrast masking in strabismic amblyopia: attenuation, noise, interocular suppression and binocular summation. Vision Research, 48(15): 1625-1640, [DOI].
  83. Baker, D.H. & Graf, E.W. (2008) Equivalence of physical and perceived speed in binocular rivalry. Journal of Vision, 8(4): 26, 1-12, [DOI].
  84. Hess, R.F., Baker, D.H., May, K.A. & Wang, J. (2008) On the decline of 1st and 2nd order sensitivity with eccentricity. Journal of Vision, 8(1): 19, 1-12, [DOI].
  85. Baker, D.H., Meese, T.S., Mansouri, B. & Hess, R.F. (2007) Binocular summation of contrast remains intact in strabismic amblyopia. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 48(11): 5332-5338, [DOI].
  86. Baker, D.H. & Meese, T.S. (2007) Binocular contrast interactions: Dichoptic masking is not a single process. Vision Research, 47(24): 3096-3107, [DOI].
  87. Baker, D.H., Meese, T.S. & Georgeson, M.A. (2007) Binocular interaction: contrast matching and contrast discrimination are predicted by the same model. Spatial Vision, 20(5): 397-413, [DOI].
  88. Baker, D.H., Meese, T.S. & Summers, R.J. (2007) Psychophysical evidence for two routes to suppression before binocular summation of signals in human vision. Neuroscience, 146(1): 435-448, [DOI].
  89. Meese, T.S., Georgeson, M.A. & Baker, D.H. (2006) Binocular contrast vision at and above threshold. Journal of Vision, 6(11): 1224-1243, [DOI].

PhD Thesis

  • Baker, D.H. (2008). Interocular suppression and contrast gain control in human vision. PhD thesis, Aston University, [AURA] [EPRINTS] [ETHOS].




I am open to supervising Masters projects and PhD students. If you are interested in applying to do a PhD, please feel free to email me.

Contact details

Professor Daniel Baker
Deputy Head of Department
Department of Psychology
Room PS/B106

Tel: 01904 32 2887