Accessibility statement

Alan Baddeley
Emeritus Professor



  • University College London
    BA (1956)
  • Princeton University
    MA (1957)
  • Cambridge University
    PhD (1962)

I graduated in psychology from UCL, and after an MA at Princeton, joined the MRC Applied Psychology Unit in Cambridge, where I completed a PhD. After several years on the scientific staff of the APU I moved to the U of Sussex in Experimental Psychology, then to a chair at Stirling university, before returning to the APU as Director. Some 21 years later I moved to Bristol University for 8 years before joining the York department in 2003.

My interests are in human memory, neuropsychology and in the practical application of cognitive psychology.


  • MRC Applied Psychology Unit
    Scientific staff (1958 - 1967)
  • University of Sussex
    Lecturer, later Reader (1967 - 1972)
  • University of Stirling
    Professor of Psychology (1972 - 1974)
  • MRC Applied Psychology Unit
    Director (1974 - 1995)
  • Churchill College (Cambridge)
    Senior Research Fellow (1987 - 1995)
  • University of Cambridge
    Honorary Professor of Cognitive Psychology (1991 - 1995)
  • University of Bristol
    Professor of Psychology (1995 - 2003)
  • University of York
    Professor of Psychology (2003 - present)



  • Introduction to Psychology as a Biological Science
  • Practical Applications of the Psychology of Memory



My interests are in human memory, neuropsychology and in the practical application of cognitive psychology.

Research group(s)

Memory Research Group


Selected publications

  • Baddeley, A.D. (2018). Working Memories: Postmen, Divers and the Cognitive Revolution. London: Routledge.

  • Baddeley, A. (2018). Exploring Working Memory. Selected works of Alan Baddeley. London: Routledge

  • Baddeley, A. D., Eysenck, M., & Anderson, M. C. (2014). Memory (2nd ed.). Hove: Psychology Press.

  • Baddeley, A. D., Eysenck, M., & Anderson, M. C. (2009). Memory. Hove: Psychology Press.
  • Baddeley, AD. (2007). Working memory, thought and action. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Published Tests

  •  Baddeley, A.D. (1968) A 3-min reasoning test based on grammatical transformation.  Psychonomic Science, 10, 341-342
  •  Wilson, B., Cockburn, J., & Baddeley, A.D. (1985) The Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test.  Thames Valley Test Company, 34 The Square, Titchfield, Fareham, Hampshire PO14 4AF.
  •  Kopelman, M., Wilson, B., & Baddeley, A. (1990) The Autobiographical Memory Interview.  Thames Valley Test Company.
  •  Baddeley, A.D., Emslie, H. & Nimmo-Smith, I. (1992).  The Speed and Capacity of Language Processing (SCOLP) Test.  Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk:  Thames Valley Test Company.
  •  Baddeley, A.D., Emslie, H. & Nimmo-Smith, I. (1994).  Doors and People:  A Test of Visual and Verbal Recall and Recognition.  Flempton, Bury St. Edmunds:  Thames Valley Test Company.
  •  Baddeley, A.D., Meeks Gardner, J. & Grantham-McGregor, S. (1995).  Cross-cultural cognition:  Developing tests for developing countries.  Applied Cognitive Psychology, 9, S pp. 173-195.
  •  Gathercole, S.E. & Baddeley A.D. (1996) The children's test of non-word repetition, Psychological Corporation, London.
  •  Della Sala, S., Gray, C., Baddeley, A.D. & Wilson, L. (1997)  The visual patterns test:  A test of short-term visual recall.  Thames Valley Test Company.
  •  Wilson, B.A., Clare, L., Baddeley, A. D., Cockburn, J., Watson P. C. & Tate, R. (1999) The Rivermead Behavioural Memory test - Extended Version.  Bury St Edmonds: Thames Valley Test Company.
  •  Baddeley, A., & Crawford, J. (2012). Spot the Word, Second EditionOxford: Pearson Assessment.


Full publications list

  • Stamate, A., Logie, R.H., Baddeley, A.D. & Della Sala, S. (2020)  Forgetting in Alzheimer’s disease: Is it fast? Is it affected by repeated retrieval? Neuropsychologia, .doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2020.107351. [Epub ahead of print]

  • Guazzo, F., Allen, R.J., Baddeley, A.D. & Della Sala, S. (Jan 2020). Unimodal and Crossmodal working memory binding is not differentially affected by age or Alzheimer’s disease. Neuropsychology.  doi: 10.1037/neu0000622. [Epub ahead of print]

  • Allen R, Kemp S, Morson S, Wells C, Grindheim K, Baddeley A. (2019 in press). Does telephone testing of long-term memory retention and forgetting influence performance in young and older adults? An examination using the Crimes Test. The Neuropsychologist.ISSN 2396-8540 

  • Hitch, G.J., Allen, R.J. & Baddeley, A.D. (2020). Attention and binding in visual working memory: Two forms of attention and two kinds of buffer storage. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 82, 280-293. doi 10.3758/s13414-019-01837-x

  • Baddeley, A.,D. (2019). It was an exciting time to be a cognitive psychologist, Psychologist,  32, 58-59.
  • Mattys, S. & Baddeley, A.D. (2019). Working memory and second-language accent acquisition.  Applied Cognitive Psychology.

  • Baddeley, A.D., Hitch, G.J. & Allen, R.J. (2019). From short-term store to multicomponent working memory: The role of the modal model. Memory & Cognition, Special Issue, 47,  575-588 doi: 10.3758/s13421-018-0878-5. 

  • Baddeley, A.D. & Hitch, G.J. (2019) The phonological loop as a buffer store: An update. Cortex, 112, 91-106
  • Evans, K. & Baddeley, A. D. (2018) Intention, Attention and Long-term Memory for Visual Scenes: It all depends on the scenes. Cognition. 180, 24-37
  • Covre, P., Baddeley, A.D., Hitch, G.J. & Bueno, O.F. A. (2018, in press). Maintaining task set against distraction: The role of working memory in multitasking. Psychology & Neuroscience, 12, 38-52.
  • Atkinson, A.L., Berry, E.D.J., Waterman, A.H., Baddeley, A.D., Hitch, G.J. & Allen, R.J. (10 April 2018,  Epub ahead of print). Are there multiple ways to direct attention in working memory? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. doi 10.1111/nyas.13634
  • Hitch, G. J., Hu, Y., Allen, R. J. & Baddeley, A. D (10 Mar 2018, Epub ahead of print)  Competition for the focus of attention in visual working memory: perceptual recency versus executive control.  Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. doi 10.1111/nyas.13631
  • Baddeley, A., Atkinson, A., Kemp, S. & Allen, R. (2 Feb 2018, Epub ahead of print). The problem of detecting long-term forgetting: Evidence from the Crimes Test and the Four Doors Test. Cortex. doi  10.1016/j.cortex.2018.01.017
  • Mattys, S., Baddeley, A. D. & Trenkic, D. (6 Nov 2017/in press). Is the superior verbal memory span of Mandarin speakers due to faster rehearsal? Memory & Cognition. 9 p. 
  • Baddeley, A. D. (15 Nov 2017/in press) Exploring the sentence advantage in working memory: Insights from serial recall and recognition. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology.
  • Baddeley, A.D., Hitch, G.J. & Quinlan, P.T. (2017, October 1) Is the phonological similarity effect in working memory due to proactive interference? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition.
  • Berry, E. D. J., Waterman, A., Baddeley, A. D., Hitch, G. J., & Allen, R. J. (2017, August 8). The limits of visual working memory in children: exploring prioritization and recency effects with sequential presentation
  • Allen, R. J., Baddeley, A. D., & Hitch, G. J. (2017, April 17). Executive and Perceptual Distraction in Visual Working Memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. Advance online publication.
  • Baddeley, A. D. (2017/in press) Modularity, working memory and language acquisition. Second Language Research, 0(0), 
  • Atkinson, A.L., Baddeley, A.D. & Allen, R.J. (2017 in press) Remember some or remember all? Ageing and strategy effects in visual working memory. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology.
  • Baddeley, A.D. & Hitch, G.J. (2017) Is the levels of processing effect language-limited? Journal of Memory & Language, 92, 1-13. doi: 10.1016/j.jml.2016.05.001
  • Hu, Y., Allen, R. J., Baddeley, A. D. & Hitch, G. J. (epub 03 May 2016) Executive control of stimulus-driven and goal-directed attention in visual working memory. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics.doi 10.3758/s13414-016-1106-7 
  • Baddeley, A. (2015)  Origins of the multicomponent working memory model. In M. Eysenck & D. Groome (Eds). Cognitive psychology: Revisiting the classic studies. London: Sage.

  • Baddeley, A. (2015) Working memory in second language learning. In Zhisheng, W., Morta, M. & McNeil, A. (Eds). Working memory and second language acquisition and processing: Theories, research and commentaries.(pp. 17-28) Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters
  • Baddeley, A. D., Hitch, G.J., Quinlan, P., Bowes, L. & Stone, R. (2015). Doors for memory: A searchable database. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1-18. doi: 10.1080/17470218.2015.1087582 
  • Evans, K., & Baddeley, A. (2015). How Automatic is Visual Recognition Memory? Journal of Vision15(12), 81. doi: 10.1167/15.12.81
  • Pinheiro, E. C. M., Barbosa, T., Miranda, M. C., Baddeley, A., Navas, A. L. G. P., & Bueno, O. F. A. (2015). Adaptation of the word subtest of the Reading Decision Test (RDT) for Brazilian Portuguese. Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, 28, 31-40. 
  • Hu, Y., Hitch, G.J., Baddeley, A.D., Zhang, M. & Allen, R.J. (2014) Executive and Perceptual Attention play Different roles in Visual Working Memory: Evidence from Suffix and Strategy Effects. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance,40, 1665-1678.
  • Campoy, G., Castellà, J., Provencio, V., Hitch, G.J. & Baddeley, A.D. (2014) Automatic semantic encoding in verbal short-term memory: Evidence from the concreteness effect. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, published online 18 Sep 2014.
  • Allen, R.J., Castellà, J., Ueno, T., Hitch, G.J. & Baddeley, A.D. (2104) What does visual suffix interference tell us about spatial location in working memory? Memory Cognition,  published online 17 July 2014.
  • Allen, R.J., Vargha-Khadem, F. & Baddeley, A.D. (2014) Item-location binding in working memory: Is it hippocampus-dependent? Neuropsychologia, 59, 74-84.
  •  Allen, R. J., Baddeley, A. D. & Hitch, G. J. (2014) Evidence for two attentional components in visual working memory.Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition.
  • Prendergast, G., Limbrick-Oldfield, E., Ingamells, E., Gathercole, S., Baddeley, A. & Green, G. G. R. (2013) Differential patterns of prefrontal MEG activation during verbal & visual encoding and retrieval. PloS one. 8, 12, p. e82936. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0082936
  • Baddeley, A., Rawlings, B. & Hayes, A. (2013) Constrained prose recall and the assessment of long-term forgetting: The case of aging and the Crimes Test. Memory.
  • Baddeley, A. (2013) On applying cognitive psychology. British Journal of Psychology, 104, 443-456.
  •  Hurlstone, M.J., Hitch, G.J. & Baddeley, A.D. 2013). Memory for serial order across domains: An overview of the literature and directions for future research. Psychological Bulletin.  Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/a0034221
  •  Rao, V.K. & Baddeley, A. (2013) Raven’s matrices and working memory: A dual task approach. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, doi: 10.1080/17470218.2013.828314  
  • Saeki, E., Baddeley, A.D., Hitch G.J. & Saito, S. (2013). Breaking a habit: The role of the phonological loop in action control. Memory & Cognition, April 2013, doi:10.3758/s13421-013-0320-y 
  • Baddeley, A. (i2013). Working Memory and Emotion: Ruminations on a Theory of Depression. Review of General Psychology, Feb 4 , 2013, doi:10.1037/a0030029
  • Vredevedlt, A, Baddeley, A.D. & Hitch, G.J. (in press 2013). The effectiveness of eye-closure in repeated interviews. Legal and Criminological Psychology.
  • Baddeley, A. (2012). Reflections on autobiographical memory. In D. Berntsen & D. C. Rubin (Eds.), Understanding autobiographical memory: Theories and approaches (pp. 70-88). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Rossi-Arnaud, C., Pieroni, L., Spataro, P. & Baddeley, A.D. (2012). Working memory involvement in symmetry encoding: Differences between vertical, horizontal and diagonal configurations. Acta Psychologica.
  • Allen, R., Hitch, G. J., Mate, J. & Baddeley, A. (2012). Feature binding and attention in working memory: A resolution of previous contradictory findings. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 1,   1-15.
  • Kemp, S., Illman, N., Moulin, C. J. & Baddeley, A. (2012). Accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF) and transient epileptic amnesia (TEA): Two cases of epilepsy‐related memory disorder. Epilepsy & Behavior, 24, 382-388.
  • Baddeley, A., Banse, R., Huang, Y-M., & Page, M. (2012) Working memory and emotion: Detecting the hedonic detector. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 24, 6-16.
  • Baddeley, A.  (2012). Working memory, theories models and controversy. The Annual Review of Psychology, 63, 12.1–12.29.
  • Lanfranchi, S., Baddeley, A., Gathercole, S. & Vianello, R. (2011). Working memory in Down syndrome: Is there a dual task deficit? Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: Article first published online: 5 JUL 2011. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2788.2011.01444.x
  •  Baddeley, A.,  Jarrold, C.  & Vargha-Khadem, F. (2011). Working memory and the hippocampus. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23, 3855-3861.
  • Vredeveldt, A., Hitch, G.J., & Baddeley, A.D. (2011). Eye-Closure helps memory by reducing cognitive load and enhancing visualisation.  Memory & Cognition 2011 Apr 14. DOI 10.3758/s13421-011-0098-8

  • Andrade, J. & Baddeley, A. (2011).  The contribution of phonological short-term memory to artificial grammar learning.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, iFirst, 1-15 DOI: 10.1080/17470218.2010.533440

  • Baddeley, A.D., Allen, R.J., & Hitch, G.J. (2011). Binding in visual working memory: The role of the episodic buffer. Neuropsychologia, 49, 1393-1400

  • Jarrold, C., Tam, H., Baddeley, A. D., & Harvey, C. E. (2011). How does processing affect storage in working memory tasks? Evidence for both domain-general and domain-specific effects. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. 2011 Feb 14.  DOI:10.1037/a0022527

  • Ueno, T., Mate, J., Allen, R.J., Hitch, G.J. & Baddeley, A.D. (2010). What goes through the gate? Exploring interference with visual feature binding. Neuropsychologia.  2010 Dec 23. (Epub ahead of print).

  • Ueno, T., Baddeley, A., Hitch, G. & Saito, S. (2011) Disruption of visual feature binding in working memory. Memory & Cognition, 39, 12-23.

  • Jarrold, C., Tam,. Baddeley, A.D. & Harvey, C. E. (2010) The nature and the position of processing determines why forgetting occurs in working memory tasks. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 17, 772-777.

  • Baddeley, A., Allen, R.J., & Hitch, G.J. (2010) Investigating the episodic buffer. Psychologica Belgica, 50, 223-243.

  • Tam, H., Jarrold, C., Baddeley, A.D. & Sabatos-DeVito, M. (2010) The development of memory maintenance: Children’s use of phonological rehearsal and attentional refreshment in working memory tasks. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 107,  306-324.

  • Karlson, P., Allen, R. J., Baddeley, A. D., & Hitch, G. J. (2010). Binding across space and time in visual working memory. Memory and Cognition, 38 , 292-303. 

  • Williamson. V., Mitchell, T., Hitch, G., & Baddeley, A. (2010) Musicians’ memory for language and music in conditions of irrelevant sound. Psychology of Music. 38(3), 331- 351

  • Williamson, V. Baddeley, A. & Hitch, G. (2010) Musicians’ and nonmusicians’ short-term memory for verbal and musical sequences: Comparing phonological similarity and pitch proximity. Memory and Cognition, 38,


  • Baddeley, A.D. & Hitch, G.J. (2010) Working memory. Scholarpedia 5(2 ), 3015. 

  • Baddeley, A.D. (2010) Working memory. Current Biology 20, 136-140.

  • Baddeley, A.D., Allen, R.J. & Vargha-Khadem, F. (2010) Is the hippocampus necessary for visual and verbal binding in working memory? Neuropsychologia 48, 1089-1095

  • Baddeley, A.D. (2010). Long-term and working memory: How do they interact? In Lars Bäckman and Lars Nyberg (Eds), Memory, aging and the brain: a festschrift in honour of Lars-Göran Nilsson. (pp. 18-30). Hove, UK: Psychology Press. 

  • Baddeley, A.D (2009) Psychology in the 1950s: a personal view. In P.Rabbitt (Ed) Inside Psychology: A science over 50 years. (pp 27-35) Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Baddeley, A.D. (2009) Foreword What’s it for? Why ask? Applied Cognitive Psychology 23, 1045-1049.

  • Baddeley, A.D., Hitch, G.J., Allen, R.J. (2009) Working memory and binding in sentence recall.  Journal of Memory and Language, 61 , 438-456.

  • Wing, A.M. & Baddeley, A.D. (2009). Righting errors in writing errors: The Wing and Baddeley (1980) spelling corpus revisited. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 26, 223-226.

  • Brandt. K.R., Gardiner, J.M., Vargha-Khadem, F., Baddeley, A.D. and Mishkin, M. (2009) Selective impairment of recollection but not familiarity in a case of developmental amnesia. Neurocase, 15(1), 60-65.

  • Allen, R.J., Hitch, G.J. & Baddeley, A.D. (2009). Cross-modal binding and working memory. Visual Cognition, 17, 83-102.

  • Wing, A.M. & Baddeley, A.D. (2009). Righting errors in writing errors: The Wing and Baddeley (1980) spelling corpus revisited. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 26, 223-226.

  • Laine, M., Tuokkola, T., Hiltunen, J., Vorobyev, V, Bliss, I., Baddeley, A., & Rinne, J.O. (2009) Central executive function in mild cognitive impairment: A PET activation study. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 50, 33-40.

  • Campoy, G. & Baddeley, A.D. (2008) Phonological and semantic strategies in immediate serial recall. Memory, 16, 329-340.

  • Gardiner, J.M., Brandt. K.R., Baddeley, A.D., Vargha-Khadem, F., and Mishkin, M. (2008) Charting the acquisition of semantic knowledge in a case of development amnesia. Neuropsychologia, 46, 2865-2868.

  • Williams, H.L., Conway, M.A., & Baddeley, A.D. (2008) The boundaries of episodic memories. In T.F. Shipley & J. M. Zacks (Eds) Understanding events from perception to action. (pp 589-616) New York: Oxford University Press.

  • Baddeley, A. D. (2008) What's new in working memory? Psychology Review, 13, 2-5.

  • Baddeley, A. & Jarrold, C.(2007). Working memory and Down Syndrome. Journal of Intellectural Disability Research, 51, 925-931.

  • Baddeley, A. D., & Hitch, G. J. (2007). Working memory: Past, present…and future? In N.Osaka, R. Logie & M. D’Esposito (Eds), Working Memory - Behavioural & Neural Correlates. Oxford University Press.

  • Baddeley, A.D. & Larsen, J.D. (2007). The phonological loop: Some answers and some questions. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 60 (4), 512-518

  • Baddeley, A. D., & Larsen, J. D. (2007). The phonological loop unmasked? A comment on the evidence for a “perceptual-gestural” alternative. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 60, 497-504.

  • Jarrold, C., Baddeley, A. D., & Phillips, C. (2007). Long-term memory for verbal and visual information in Down syndrome and Williams syndrome: Performance on the doors and people test. Cortex, 43, 233-247.

  • Jarrold, C., Phillips, C., & Baddeley, A. D. (2007). Binding of visual and spatial short-term memory in Williams syndrome and in moderate learning disability. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 49, 270-273.

  • Baddeley, A.D. (2007) Working memory: Multiple models, multiple mechanisms. In H.L Roediger, Y.Dudai, S,M, Fitzpatrick (Eds) Science of Memory: Concepts. (pp 151-153) Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Birkett, P. Brindley, A., Norman, P., Harrison, G., Baddeley, A. (2006) Control of attention and central executive function in schizophrenia. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 40, 579-588

  • Rossi-Arnaud, C., Pieroni, L., & Baddeley, A. D. (2006). Symmetry and binding in visuo-spatial working memory. Neuroscience, 139, 393-400.

  • Allen, R.J., Baddeley, A.D., & Hitch, G.J. (2006) Is the binding of visual features in working memory resource-demanding? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 135, 298-313

  • Gardiner, J.M., Brandt, K.R., Vargha-Khadem, F., Baddeley, A.D., & Mishkin, M. (2006) Effects of Level Processing but not of Task Enactment on Recognition Memory in a Case of Developmental Amnesia. Cognitive Neuroscience, 23, 930-948

  • Baddeley, A.D. (2006) Working memory: an overview. In Pickering S. Working Memory and Education. (p1-31) New York: Academic Press

  • Repovs, G., & Baddeley, A.D. (2006) Multi-component model of working memory: explorations in experimental cognitive psychology. Neuroscience Special Issue, 139, 5-21

  • Spooner, A. L. R., Gathercole, S, E., & Baddeley, A. D. (2006) Does weak reading comprehension reflect an integration deficit? Journal of Research in Reading, 29 (2), pp 173-193

  • Postle, B.R., Idzikowski, C., Della Sala, S., Logie, R.H. & Baddeley, A.D. (2006) The selective disruption of spatial working memory by eye movements. Quarterly Journal of Psychology A, 59(1), 100-120.

  • Bayliss, D.M., Jarrold, C., Baddeley. & Leigh, E. (2005) Differential constraints on the working memory and reading abilities of individuals with learning difficulties and typically developing children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 92 (1), 76-99.

  • Bayliss, D.M., Jarrold, C., Baddeley, A.D., Gunn, D.M. & Leigh, E. (2005) Mapping the developmental constraints on working memory in span performance. Developmental Psychology, 41, 579-597.

  • Lobley, K.J., Baddeley, A.D. & Gathercole, S.E. (2005) Phonological similarity effect in verbal complex span. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58A, 1462-1478.

  • Bayliss, D., Jarrold, C., Baddeley, A., & Gunn, D. (2005) The relationship between short-term memory and working memory: Complex span made simple. Memory, 13 (3-4), 414-421.

  • Baddeley, A.D., Baddeley, H., Chincotta, D., Luzzi, S. & Meikle, C. (2005) Working memory and aging. In J. Duncan, L. Phillips & P. McLeod (eds) Measuring the Mind Speed, Control, and Age. (p293-316) Oxford University Press.

  • Jeffries, E., Lambon Ralph, M. A., & Baddeley, A. D. (2004). Automatic and controlled processing in sentence recall: The role of long-term and working memory. Journal of Memory and Language, 51, 623 -643.

  • Logie, R.H., Cocchini, S., Della Sala, S., & Baddeley, A. (2004) Is there a specific capacity for dual task co-ordination? Evidence from Alzheimer’s Disease. Neuropsychology, 18(3), 504-513

  • Norris, D., Baddeley, A.D., Page, M.P.A. (2004) Retroactive effects of irrelevant speech on serial recall from short-term memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning, Memory, and Cognition. 30(5), 1093-1105.

  • Saito, S., & Baddeley, A.D. (2004) Irrelevant sound disrupts speech production: Exploring the relationship between short-term memory and experimentally induced slips of the tongue. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 57A (7): 1309-1340.

  • Spooner, A., Baddeley, A.D., & Gathercole, S.E. (2004) Can reading accuracy and comprehension be separated in the Neale Analysis of reading ability? British Journal of Educational Psychology, 74: 187-204.

  • Phillips, C.E., Jarrold, C., Baddeley, A., Grant, J., & Karmiloff-Smith, A. (2004). Comprehension of spatial language terms in Williams syndrome: Evidence for an interaction between domains of strength and weakness. Cortex. 40: 85-10.

  • Jarrold, C., Baddeley, A.D., Hewes, A.K., Leeke, T., & Phillips, C. (2004) What links verbal short-term memory performance and vocabulary level? Evidence of changing relationships among individuals with learning disability. Journal of Memory and Language, 50: 134-148.

  • Bayliss, D., Jarrold, C., Gunn, D.M., & Baddeley, A.D. (2003). The complexities of complex span; Explaining individual differences in working memory in children and adults. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 132: 71-92.

  • Baddeley, A.D. (2003) Double dissociation: Not magic but still useful. Cortex 39: 129-131.

  • Gisselgard, J., Petersson, K.M., Baddeley, A. & Ingvar, M. (2003) The irrelevant speech effect: A PET study. Neuropsychologia, 41 (14): 1899-1911.

  • Birkett, P., Brindley, A.J., & Baddeley, A.D. (2003) Attention and divided attention in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 60 (1): 125-125.

  • Larsen, J. & Baddeley, A.D. (2003) The disruption of STM: A response to our commentators. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A, 56 (8): 1301-1306.

  • Larsen, J. & Baddeley, A.D. (2003) Disruption of verbal STM by irrelevant speech, articulatory suppression and manual tapping: Do they have a common source? Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A, 56 (8): 1249-1268.

  • Baddeley, A.D. (2003) Working Memory: Looking back and looking forward. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 4 (10): 829-839.

  • Cowan, N., Baddeley, A.D., Elliott, E.M., & Norris, J. (2003) List composition and the word length effect in immediate recall: A comparison of localist and globalist assumptions. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 10 (1): 74-79.

  • Baddeley, A.D. (2003) Working memory and language: An overview. Journal of Communication Disorders, 36 (3): 189-208.

  • Clare, L., Baddeley, A.D., Moniz-Cook, E., & Woods, B (2003) A quiet revolution. The Psychologist, 16 (5): 250-254.

  • Bayliss, D.M., Jarrold, C., Gunn, D.M., & Baddeley, A.D. (2003) The complexities of complex span: Explaining individual differences in working memory in children and adults. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 132 (1): 71-92.

  • Baddeley AD. (2002) Is working memory still working? European Psychologist, 7 (2): 85-97. Reprinted from American Psychologist; 56 (11): 851-64.

  • Cocchini, G., Logie, R.H., Della Sala, S. & Baddeley, A.D. (2002) Concurrent performance of two memory tasks: Evidence for domain-specific working memory systems. Memory & Cognition, 30 (7): 1086-1095.

  • Baddeley, A.D. (2002) The psychology of memory. In: A. D. Baddeley, B. A. Wilson & M. Kopelman (Eds.) Handbook of Memory Disorders, 2nd Edition. Hove: Psychology Press. pp3-15.

  • Jukes, M.C.H., Nokes, K., Alcock, K.J., Lambo, J.K., Kihamia, C., Ngorosho, N., Lorri, W., Yona, E., Mwanri, L., Baddeley, A.D., Hall, A.D., & Bundy, D.A.P. (2002) Heavy schistosomiasis associated with poor short-term memory and slower reaction times in Tanzanian school children. Tropical Medicine and International Health, 7 (2): 104-117

  • Jarrold, C., Baddeley, A. D., & Phillips, (2002) Verbal short-term memory in Down syndrome: A problem of memory, audition, or speech? Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 45 (3): 531-544.

  • Baddeley, A. D. (2002) Fractionating the central executive. In: D. Stuss & R. T. Knight (Eds) Principles of frontal lobe function. New York: Oxford University Press. pp 246-260

  • Baddeley, A. D., & Wilson, B. (2002) Prose recall and amnesia: Implications for the structure of working memory. Neuropsychologia, 40: 1737-1743.

  • Baddeley, A. D., Chincotta, D., Stafford, L., & Turk, D. (2002) Is the word length effect in STM entirely attributable to output delay? Evidence from serial recognition. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 55A: 353-369.

  • Baddeley, A.D. (2002) Developmental amnesia: A challenge to current models. In: L. Squires & D. Schacter (Eds.) The Neuropsychology of Memory, 3rd Edition. New York: Guilford Press. pp 88-96.

  • Baddeley, A.D. (2001) Levels of working memory. In: M. Naveh-Benjamin, M. Moscovitch & H. L. Roediger (Eds) Perspectives on human memory and cognitive ageing: Essays in honor of Fergus Craik. New York: Psychology Press. pp 111-123.

  • Baddeley, A. D. (2001) So where should we publish? Cortex, 37: 598-599

  • Saxton, J. A., Ratcliff, G., Dodge, H., Pandav, R., Baddeley, A., & Ganguli, M. (2001) Speed and capacity of language processing test: Normative data from an older American community-dwelling sample. Applied Neuropsychology, Vol 8 (4): 193-203.

  • Baddeley, A.D., & Hitch, G. (2001) Foreword. In: J. Andrade (Ed.) Working memory in context. Hove: Psychology Press.

  • Baddeley AD. (2001) Is working memory still working? American Psychologist, 56 (11): 851-64.

  • Baddeley, A.D., Chincotta, D.M. & Adlam, A. (2001) Working memory and the control of action: Evidence from task switching. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 130: 641-657.

  • Baddeley, A.D. (2001) The concept of episodic memory. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London, B, 356: 1345-1350.

  • Baddeley, A.D., Baddeley, H., Wilcock, G. K. & Bucks, R. (2001) Attentional control in Alzheimer’s disease. Brain, 124, 1492-1508

  • Baddeley, A.D. (2001) Comment on Cowan: The magic number and the episodic buffer. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 24, 117-118.

  • Jarrold, C., Baddeley, A. D., Hewes, A. K., & Phillips, C. (2001) A longitudinal asessment of diverging verbal and non-verbal abilities in the Williams syndrome phenotype. Cortex, 37, 423-431.

  • Baddeley, A. D., Vargha-Khadem, F., & Mishkin, M. (2001) Preserved Recognition in a case of Developmental Amnesia: Implications for the Acquisition of Semantic Memory. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 13: 3, 357-369.

  • Baddeley, A. D. (2001) Memories of memory. In: G. C. Bunn, A. D. Lovie & G. D. Richards (Eds) Psychology in Britain: Historical Essays and Personal Reflections. Leicester, UK: British Psychological Society Books. pp 344-352.

  • Alcock, K.J., Nokes, K., Ngowi, F., Musabi, C., Mbise, A., Mandali, R., Bundy, D., Baddeley, A. (2000) The development of reading tests for use in a regularly spelt language. Applied Psycholinguistics, 21: (4) 525-555.

  • Baddeley, A.D. (2000) Working Memory. APA Encyclopedia

  • Baddeley, A.D. (2000) Selective attention and performance in dangerous environments. Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments, 5, 86-91 (reprinted from British Journal of Psychology, 63, (1972) 537-546.)

  • Baddeley, A.D. (2000) Working Memory and language processing. In: B. E. Dimitrova & K. Hyltenstam (Eds.) Language Processing and Simultaneous Interpreting: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins Translation Library.

  • Jarrold, C., Hewes, A. K., & Baddeley, A.D. (2000) Do two separate speech measures constrain verbal short term memory in children? Journal of Experimental Psychology, 26, (6) 1626-1637

  • Baddeley, A.D. (2000) The Phonological Loop and the Irrelevant Speech effect: Some Comments on Neath. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 7 (3) 544-549.

  • Baddeley, A.D. et al (2000) The brain decade in debate: 1. Neurobiology of learning and memory. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 33: 993-1002. (Transcript of internet debate.)

  • Baddeley, A.D. (2000) Working memory: The interface between memory and cognition. In: M. Gazzaniga (Ed.) Cognitive Neuroscience: A Reader. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers Ltd. pp 292-304.

  • Baddeley, A.D. & Hitch, G. (2000) Development of working memory: Should the Pascual-Leone and Baddeley and Hitch models be merged? Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 77: 128-137.

  • Baddeley, A.D. (2000) The episodic buffer: A new component of working memory? Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 4, 11, 417-423.

  • Jarrold, C., Hartley, S. J., Phillips, C., & Baddeley, A. D. (2000) Word fluency in Williams syndrome: Evidence for unusual semantic organization. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 5, (4) 293-318.

  • Logie, R.H., Della Sala, S., Wynn, V., & Baddeley, A.D. (2000) Visual similarity effects in immediate serial recall. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 53A, 3, 626-646

  • Wilson, B.A., Watson, P.C., Baddeley, A.D., Emslie, H., & Evans, J.J. (2000) Improvement or simply practice? The effects of twenty repeated assessments on people with and without brain injury. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 6, 469-479.

  • Larsen, J. D., Baddeley, A.D., & Andrade, J. (2000) Phonological Similarity and Irrelevant Speech: Implications for models of short-term verbal memory Memory, 8, 145-157.

  • Baddeley, A.D., & Andrade, J. (2000) Working memory and the vividness of imagery. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 129, 1, 126-145.

  • Jarrold, C., Baddeley, A. D. & Hewes, A. K. (2000) Verbal short-term Memory Deficits in Down’s Syndrome: A consequence of problems in rehearsal. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, (2), 233-244.

  • Evans, J.J., Wilson, B.A., Schuri, U., Baddeley, A.D., Canavan, A., Laaksonen, R., Bruna, O., Lorenzi, L., Della Sala, S., Andrade, J., Green, R., Taussik, I. (2000) A comparison of ‘errorless’ and ‘trial and error’ learning methods for teaching individuals with acquired memory deficits. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 10 (1), 67-101.

  • Baddeley, A.D. (2000) Bartlett and Applied Psychology. In A. Saito (Ed) Bartlett, Culture & Cognition, Psychology Press, pp 36-45.

  • Baddeley, A.D. (2000) Short-term and working memory. In E Tulving & F.I.M. Craik (Eds) The Oxford Handbook of Memory, New York: Oxford University Press, pp 77-92.

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External activities


  • Psychonomics Society


  • Myers Lecturer
    British Psychological Society (1980)
  • Presidents' Award
    British Psychological Society (1982)
  • Bartlett Lecturer
    Experimental Psychology Society (1988)
  • President
    Experimental Psychology Society (1984-86)
  • President
    European Society for Cognitive Psychology (1986-90)
  • Elected member
    European Academy(1989)
  • Honorary Doctorate
    University of Umeå, Sweden (1991)
  • Wechsler Professor
    University of Texas at Austin (January - May 1992)
  • Elected Fellow
    Royal Society (1993)
  • Honorary Fellow
    British Psychological Society (1995)
  • Honorary Doctorate
    University of Stirling (1996)
  • Elected Honorary Foreign Member
    American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1996)
  • Fellow
    University College London (1998)
  • Fellow
    Academy of Medical Sciences (1998)
  • Commander of the British Empire (CBE)
    for contributions to the study of memory (1999)
  • University of Essex
    Honorary Doctorate (1999)
    Founding Fellow
    Academy of Medical Sciences (1999)
  • Founding Fellow
    Academy of Social Sciences (2000)
  • Honorary Doctorate
    University of Plymouth (2000)
  • Aristotle Prize
    for contribution to European psychology (2001)
  • American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Contribution to Science
    American Psychological Association (2001)
  • Honorary Doctorate
    University of Edinburgh (2005)
  • Elected Fellow
    British Academy (2008)
  • British Psychological Society Book Prize forWorking Memory, Thought and Action (2009)
  • British Psychological Society Lifetime Achievement Award (2012)
  • International Union of Psychological Science Major Advancement in Psychological Science Prize (2016)
  • Honorary Doctorate University of Bristol (2019).

Editorial duties


Contact details

Alan Baddeley
Department of Psychology
Room PS/C126

Tel: 01904 322882