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Tom Hartley
Senior Lecturer



  • Polytechnic of Central London
    BSc in Life Sciences
  • University of London
    PhD in Psychology

Graduated from the Polytechnic of Central London (Life Sciences) and went on to do a PhD in Psychology at UCL. After postdoctoral posts at the Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, UCL joined the Psychology Department at York in September 2005.



  • Spatial cognition: navigation, topographical memory, scene recognition.
  • Verbal memory: learning new spoken words; remembering serial order.
  • Neural representations and functional-anatomical organization: seeking, describing and explaining basic mechanisms and general organizational principles in the human brain.


  • Andrews, Timothy , University of York
  • Colin Lever, University of Durham
  • Graham Hitch, University of York
  • Mark Hurlstone, University of Western Australia

Available PhD research projects

Projects under my supervision could involve experimental psychology, neuroimaging or computational modelling or combinations of these.


  • Chris Racey
  • Kartini Ghani 
  • Becky Gilbert (with Graham Hitch)
  • David Watson (with Tim Andrews)


Selected publications

  • Poulter S, Hartley T, Lever C (2018) The neurobiology of mammalian navigation. Current Biology 28(17): R1023-R1042
  • Watson DM, Andrews TJ, Hartley T (2017) A data driven approach to understanding the organization of high-level visual cortex. Scientific Reports 7: 3596 DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-03974-5
  • Watson DM, Hartley T, Andrews TJ (2017) Patterns of response to scrambled scenes reveal the importance of visual properties in the organization of scene selective cortex. Cortex92:162–174
  • Sormaz M, Jefferies E, Bernhardt B, Karapanagidtis T, Mollo G, Bernasconi N, Bernasconi A, Hartley T, Smallwood J (2017) Knowing what from where: differential left-right and anterior-posterior hippocampal connectivity describe individual variation in semantic and topographic memory. Neuroimage 152: 400-1410.
  • Gilbert RA, Hitch GJ, Hartley T, (2016) Temporal Precision and the Capacity of Auditory-Verbal Short-Term Memory. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. DOI: 10.1080/17470218.2016.1239749
  • Chan, D, Bottomley, L, Moodley, K, Minati, L, Burgess, N., Hartley, T. (2016) The 4 Mountains Test: a short test of spatial memory with high sensitivity for the diagnosis of pre-dementia Alzheimer’s disease. J Vis Exp. 116: 54454
  • Hartley T, Hurlstone MJ, Hitch GJ (2016) Effects of rhythm on memory for spoken sequences: a model and tests of its stimulus-driven mechanism. Cognitive Psychology, 87, 135-178.
  • Watson DM, Hymers M, Hartley T, Andrews TJ (2016) Patterns of neural response in scene-selective regions of the human brain are affected by low-level manipulations of spatial frequency. Neuroimage, 124, 107-117.
  • Andrews TJ, Watson DM, Rice GE, Hartley T (2015) Low-level properties of natural images predict topographic patterns of neural response in the ventral visual pathway. Journal of Vision 17(7), 3
  • Vernon RJW, Sutherland CM, Young AW, Hartley T (2014) Modeling first impressions from highly variable facial imagesProc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA
  • Watson DM, Hartley T, Andrews TJ (2014) Patterns of response to visual scenes are linked to low-level properties of the image. Neuroimage
  • Rice GE, Watson DM, Hartley T, Andrews TJ (2014) Low-Level image properties of visual objects predict patterns of neural response across category selective regions of the ventral visual pathway. J Neurosci
  • Hartley T, Lever C (2014) Know your limits: the role of boundaries in the development of spatial representation. Neuron 82(1) 1-3. [Preview of Bjerknes et al., 2014 describing development of boundary cells]
  • Levita L, Bois C, Healey A, Smyllie E, Papakonstantinou E, Hartley T, Lever C (2014) The Behavioural Inhibition System, anxiety and hippocampal volume in a non-clinical population. Biology of Mood & Anxiety Disorders
  • Hartley T, Lever C, Burgess N, O’Keefe J (2014) Space in the Brain: how the hippocampal formation supports spatial cognition. Phil Trans Roy Soc B. 369 [Part of a special issue co-edited by the authors]
  • Hartley T, Harlow R  (2012) An association between human hippocampal volume and topographical memory in healthy young adults. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience  6:338.
  • Viard A Doeller C Hartley T Bird CM Burgess N (2011) Anterior hippocampus and goal directed spatial decision making. Journal of Neuroscience 31(12):4613-4621.
  • Andrews TJ, Clarke A, Pell P & Hartley T (2010) Selectivity for low-level features of objects in the human ventral stream. Neuroimage 49(1) 703-711.
  • Bird CM, Chan D, Hartley T, Pijnenburg YA, Rossor MN, Burgess N (2010). Topographical short-term memory differentiates Alzheimer's disease from frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Hippocampus 20(10), 1154-1169.
  • Hartley T, Bird CM, Chan D, Cipolotti L, Husain M, Vargha-Khadem F, Burgess N (2007). The hippocampus is required for short-term topographical memory in humans. Hippocampus 17:34-48.
  • Barry C, Lever C, Hayman R, Hartley T, Burton S, O'Keefe J, Jeffery K, Burgess N (2006) The boundary vector cell model of place cell firing and spatial memory. Rev Neurosci 17(1-2):71-97.
  • King JA, Hartley T, Spiers HJ, Maguire EA, Burgess N (2005) Anterior prefrontal involvement in episodic retrieval reflects contextual interference. Neuroimage 28(1):256-67.
  • Hartley T, Burgess N (2005). Complementary memory systems: competition, cooperation and compensation. Trends in Neurosciences 28(4):169-170.
  • Hartley T, Trinkler I, Burgess N (2004). Geometric Determinants of Human Spatial Memory. Cognition 94(1):39-75.
  • King JA, Trinkler I, Hartley T, Vargha-Khadem F, Burgess N (2004). The hippocampal role in spatial memory and the familiarity-recollection distinction: a single case study. Neuropsychology 18(3):405-417.
  • Hartley T, Maguire EA, Spiers HJ, Burgess N (2003). The well-worn route and the path less traveled: distinct neural bases of route following and wayfinding in humans. Neuron 37:877-888.
  • Hartley T, Burgess N, Lever C, Cacucci F, O'Keefe J (2000). Modeling place fields in terms of the cortical inputs to the hippocampus. Hippocampus 10(4):369-79.
  • Hartley T, Houghton G (1996). A linguistically constrained model of short-term memory. Journal of Memory and Language 35(1):1-31.

Full publications list

A full list of publications can be found on Tom Hartley's web page and Google Scholar profile.



  • Brain & Behaviour II (Teaching Block 10 - Principles of Neural Representation, Practical)


  • Research Design and Analysis in Neuroimaging
  • Basic Principles in Neuroimaging

External activities


  • Society for Neuroscience

Editorial duties

  • Brain
  • Cognition
  • Cortex
  • Cerebral Cortex
  • Epilepsia
  • Hippocampus
  • Memory
  • Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
  • Psychological Research

Invited talks and conferences

Contact details

Dr Tom Hartley
Senior Lecturer
Department of Psychology
Room PS/C125

Tel: 01904 322903