Sultan Barakat is an Honorary Professor in the Department of Politics and International Relations. The status of Honorary Professor was accorded by the University Senate for 5 years, starting from 1 September 2019. At the University of York, he founded and led the Post-war Reconstruction and Development Unit (PRDU) between 1993 and 2016. He received the University of York Vice-Chancellor’s Gold Award for Excellence in May 2011.
Professor Barakat is now the Director of the Center for Conflict and Humanitarian Studies (CHS), which he founded in 2016 and a Professor at the Doha Institute for Graduate Studies in Doha, Qatar. CHS is the leading centre for research and policy analysis on conflict and humanitarian action in the Arab world. Prior to establishing CHS, Professor Barakat was a Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institution’s Center for Middle East Policy and served as the Director of Research at the Brookings Doha Center.
Professor Barakat has over 25 years of professional experience working on issues of conflict management, humanitarian response, and post-conflict recovery and transition. He is regularly engaged in providing guidance as a Senior Advisor and Consultant to the United Nations, the World Bank, European Union, DFID, ILO, IFRC and a variety of governments and international non-governmental organizations including CARE and Oxfam. He has led major evaluations and programming initiatives in Afghanistan, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Colombia, Croatia, Egypt, Indonesia, Jordan, Kosovo, Lebanon, Palestine, Philippines, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syria, Uganda and Yemen.
His work has been published widely, with his most recent book, Understanding Influence: The Use of Statebuilding Research in British Policy published by Ashgate in 2014. Most recently, he has co-led Track I and Track II mediation efforts in Yemen, Sudan, Syria and Afghanistan. Professor Barakat is also a regular expert commentator in international media, with regular contributions to Al Jazeera English.
Professor Barakat serves on the Advisory Board of the Humanitarian Policy Group at the Overseas Development Institute in London. He is a member of the joint Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) and the UK's Department for International Development (DFID) Commissioning Panel for research on poverty reduction. Barakat was one of the founding Expert Panel Members of the Global Peace Index where he served between 2008 and 2014.
Professor Barakat's research focus included strategic conflict assessment and the linkage of context to policy; the Research-Policy Nexus; Post-conflict reconstruction and state-building; Humanitarian response; and Evaluation and value attribution. Underlying these themes is a principal research concern with public diplomacy in the Muslim World. He has conducted academic research in a number of post-conflict states worldwide, most notably including in the Middle East and North Africa region; Sub-Saharan Africa, and South Asia.
Professor Barakat's research focus included strategic conflict assessment and the linkage of context to policy; conflict mediation; the Research-Policy Nexus; Post-conflict reconstruction and state-building; Humanitarian response; and Evaluation and value attribution. Underlying these themes is a principal research concern with public diplomacy in the Muslim World. He has conducted academic research in a number of post-conflict states worldwide, most notably including in the Middle East and North Africa region; Sub-Saharan Africa, and South Asia.
Much of his work is collaborative and cross-disciplinary and has had a substantial impact on the design and use of strategic conflict and stability assessments of war-affected and fragile states. Barakat's work has pioneered the use of a reflexive 'participatory learning processes' in war-torn areas.
As Principal Investigator, Professor Barakat is the recipient of numerous research grants from ESRC, DFID, EU, World Bank, USIP, UNICEF and UNDP amongst others.
Professor Barakat was a Co-Investigator on a major Norwegian Research Council grant awarded to the Christian Michelsens Institute (CMI, Bergen) and led by Dr Antonio De Lauri. The overall value of the grant is about US$ 1 million, over three years, starting from 2019. The project aims "to study the policies, practices and impact of humanitarian diplomacy (HD) conducted by select state actors and new donors (Qatar, Turkey and the United Arab Emirates, UAE) and two major international humanitarian actors (the United Nations and the International Committee of the Red Cross, ICRC)".
From January 2020, Professor Barakat was the named Principle Investigator on a US$ 2.5 million grant to investigate the impact of Qatar’s Foreign Policy on conflict prevention and post-conflict reconstruction in the Arab world.
Strategic conflict assessment:
This research theme highlights the centrality of context to strategic conflict assessment and policy in post-conflict reconstruction. Current research roles include:
- Principal researcher in a study of Gulf State Donorship to Conflict-Affected Environments in collaboration with the Centre for the Study of Global Governance at the London School of Economics (January 2009-July 2010) Gulf state assistance to conflict-affected environments (PDF)
- Lead Investigator of the Strategic Conflict Assessment team of DFID's 'Understanding Afghanistan' initiative (March to August 2008); also, author of the 'Understanding Afghanistan Synthesis Report' on behalf of the UK Department for International Development (DFID)
- Lead researcher for a major study on mapping conflict in Uganda and deciding on how best decentralization and conflict resolution mechanisms could be supported in order to address root causes and induce local development. The study was commissioned by the Ugandan Ministry of Finance and supported by the European Commission (November 2003 ‐ July 2004)
The Research-Policy Nexus
This theme comprises a central focus on the ways and means to measure policy impact of academic research, and has included the building of a close working relationship with the Overseas Development Institute (ODI) in this regard. Current research roles include:
- Principal Investigator of the systematic review 'What is the evidence to support sustainable scale‐up of low‐cost private schools in South and West Asia, in particular in Afghanistan and Pakistan?' on behalf of the UK Department for International Development (DFID) (May 2011 ‐ March 2012).
- Principal Investigator for an ESRC-funded research programme on 'The Influence of DFID-Sponsored State Building-Oriented Research on British Policy in Fragile, Post-Conflict Environments'. January 2011-January 2014. More information.
Post-Conflict Reconstruction and Statebuilding:
Specific cross-cutting themes in this area of interest include integrity in reconstruction, policy transfer and community driven reconstruction. Current and recent research roles include:
- Principal Investigator, 'Assessment of Qatar's role in peacebuilding: motivations and impact', for Safer World (April-August 2011).
- Team Leader of a 'Training for Municipal Officials on Peace Building and Conflict Prevention Methodologies' on behalf of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in Lebanon
- Principle Investigator for the British Council-sponsored study on 'Rebuilding Trust with the Muslim World in the aftermath of 9/11' with empirical work undertaken in Jordan, Syria, Palestinian Territories, Egypt and UK (October 2003 ‐ September 2004)
- Team Leader for an EU-sponsored capacity building training programme for senior members of the Afghan public administration and civil servants preparing the national budget and working to restore and introduce new public services, Kabul (December 2002 – February 2003)
More specifically this research theme has covered the influx of humanitarian aid in post-conflict environments, and issues of coordination and sustainability. Current and recent research roles include:
- Principal Investigator for a Humanitarian Needs Assessment of Sa’ada Governorate, Yemen on behalf of the United Nations and the International NGO Forum (March-August 2009)
- Principal Researcher of in a study of 'Housing Compensation and Emergency Preparedness in Southern Lebanon', with the Norwegian Refugee Council (September 2008 to January 2009)
- Lead Investigator for an 'Audit on the Capacities of Humanitarian Governmental and Non-Governmental Organisations to Engage in Conflict-Sensitive Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Efforts in North and East of Sri Lanka'[A3] , commissioned by the Consortium of Humanitarian Agencies in Colombo (14 April - 1 May 2001)
Evaluation and Value Attribution
This theme has most recently included a focus on aid modalities and the efficacy of multi-donor trust funds. Current and recent research roles include:
- Principal Investigator of 'The Study of National Solidarity Programme’s Impact on IDP/Refugee Returnee Reintegration in Afghanistan' on behalf of the National Solidarity Programme of the Afghan Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation & Development (March ‐ November 2011).
- Principal Investigator of the systematic review 'What is the track record of Multi‐Donor Trust Funds in improving aid effectiveness?' on behalf of the UK Department for International Development (DFID) (September 2010 ‐ July 2011).
- Lead Researcher of the Mid-Term Evaluation of the NATO Trust Fund Programme for Assistance to Redundant Military Personnel in Bosnia-Herzegovina (July-September 2008)
- Principal Investigator for the mid-term evaluation of the US$600 million National Solidarity Programme in Afghanistan (PDF) on behalf of the World Bank and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan (October 2005 - March 2006).
- (2019) (with Milton) “Qatar: Conflict Mediation and Regional Objectives”, in Paczynska, A. (ed.) The New Politics of Aid: Emerging Donors and Conflict-Affected States. Lynne Rienner.
- (2019) ‘A Collaborative Regional Reconstruction Strategy in the Arab World’, in Azzam and Harb (eds.) The Arab World Beyond Conflict, Arab Centre Washington D.C
- (2014) (with Waldman, T, & Varisco, A.) "Understanding Influence: The Use of Statebuilding Research in British Policy" Ashgate
- (2014) (with Zyck, S. & Deely, S.) "The Evolution of Stabilization Concepts and Praxis", in Robert Muggah (ed.) Stabilization Operations, Security and Development: States of Fragility, Rutledge
- (2011) (with Zyck, S.) "Trends in Gulf State Assistance to Crisis-Affected Contexts", in Held and Ulrichsen (eds.) The Transformation of the Gulf: Politics, Economics and the Global Order, Routledge
- (2010) (with Wardell, G.) "Exploited by whom?: An Alternative Perspective on Humanitarian Assistance to Afghan Women", in Siddiqui (ed.) Islam: Gender and Politics, London, Sage Publications Ltd., Vol. 4
- (2009) (with Narrang-Suri, S.) "War, Cities and Planning: Making a case for urban planning in conflict-affected cities", in Grindsted, Piquard, Zammit and Day (eds) Cities and Crises, Copenhagen, Deusto University Press, pp.105-129
- (2008) (ed.) Reconstructing Post-Saddam Iraq (New York, Routledge)
- (2008) (with Car, A. and Halls, P) "Spatial methodologies to support post-war reconstruction", in Wise and Craglia (eds.) GIS and Evidence-Based Policy Making, London, CRC Press, pp. 261-282
- (2007) "Postwar reconstruction and the recovery of cultural heritage: critical lessons from the last fifteen years", in Stanley-Price (ed.) Cultural Heritage in Postwar Recovery, Rome, ICCROM, pp. 26-39
- (2005) (ed.) After the Conflict: Reconstruction and Development in the Aftermath of War (London, I.B. Tauris)
- (2004) (ed.) Reconstructing War-Torn Societies: Afghanistan (Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan)
- (2002) (with MacGinty, R) "Post-war Recovery Studies at the University of York: Interdisicplinary Education Addressing the Challenges of Rebuilding War-Torn Communities", in A.M. Salama et al (eds) Architectural Education Today: Cross Cultural Perspective, Lausanne: Comportements, pp. 68-90
- (2001) (with Wilson, C., Sankovic-Simcic, V., Kojakovic, M.) "Challenges and dilemmas facing the reconstruction of war-damaged cultural heritage: the case of Pocitelj, Bosnia-Herzegovina", in R. Layton, et al (eds), Destruction and Restoration of Cultural Property, Routledge, London and New York, pp. 165-181
- (2001) (with Deely, S.) "Somalia: Programming for Sustainable Health Care", in World Disasters Report, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, pp. 58-81(2001)
Peer-Reviewed Journal Articles
- (2020) “Reconstruction under Siege: the Gaza Strip since 2007”, Disasters, Vol. 44, No. 2, with S. Milton and G Elkahlout. This article also appears in World Humanitarian Day Virtual Issue.
- (2020) “The impact of the Gulf crisis on Qatar's humanitarian sector”, Disasters, Vol. 44, No.1, pp. 63-84, with S. Milton and G. Elkahlout.
- (2018) “The Gaza Reconstruction Mechanism: Old Wine in New Bottlenecks”, The Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 208-227, with S. Milton and G. Elkahlout.
- (2018) “Lessons Learned from Post-Conflict Recovery: Towards the Unification of Arab Efforts”, Siyasat Arabia, Issue 30, January 2018, pp. 24-39 (in Arabic), with G. Elkahlout
- (2017) ‘Cumulative Influence: The Case of Political Settlements Research in British Policy’. Policy Studies, Vol. 38, No. 6, pp. 640-663, with T. Waldman.
- (2016) ‘Higher Education as the Catalyst of Recovery in Conflict-Affected Societies’ in Globalisation, Societies and Education, Vol. 14, No. 3, pp. 403-421, with S. Milton.
- (2014) "Fragile States: A Donor-serving Concept? Issues with Interpretations of Fragile Statehood in Afghanistan", Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding, Vol. 8, No. 1, 21-41, with A. Larson
- (2013) "Conflict analysis for the twenty-first century", Conflict, Security and Development, Vol. 13, No.3, pp 259-283, with T. Waldman
- (2012) "Karzai's curse–legitimacy as stability in Afghanistan and other post-conflict environments", Policy Studies, Vol. 33, Issue 5, pp. 439-454, with M. Evans & S. Zyck
- (2012) "Post-war reconstruction, policy transfer and the World Bank: the case of Afghanistan's National Solidarity Programme", Policy Studies, Vol. 33, Issue 6, pp. 541-565, with M. Evans
- (2011) "Housing Reconstruction as Socio-economic Recovery and State Building: Evidence from Southern Lebanon", Housing Studies, with S. Zyck
- (2010) "Afghanistan’s insurgency and the viability of a political solution", Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, Vol. 33, No. 3, with S. Zyck.
- (2010) "A Tradition of Forgetting": Stabilisation and Humanitarian Action in Historical Perspective’ Disasters, Vol. 34, No. 3, with S. Deely & S. Zyck
- (2009) "The State Building Implications of Post-Conflict Demilitarization: Military Downsizing in Bosnia and Herzegovina", Contemporary Security Policy, Vol. 33, No. 6, with S. Zyck
- (2009) "The Evolution of Post-war Recovery", Third World Quarterly Vol. 30, No. 6, with S. Zyck
- (2009) "The Failed Promise of Multi-Donor Trust Funds: Aid Financing as an Impediment to Effective State-Building in Post-Conflict Environments", Policy Studies Vol. 30, No. 2, pp. 107-126
- (2005) "Attributing Value: evaluating success and failure in post-war reconstruction", Third World Quarterly, Vol. 26, No. 4&5, pp. 831-852, with M. Chard and R. Jones
- (2005) "Impact of the reintegration of former KLA combatants on the post-war recovery of Kosovo", International Journal of Peace Studies, Vol 10, No 1, Spring/Summer 2005, pp. 27-45,with A. Ozerdem
- (2005) "Post-Saddam Iraq: Deconstructing a Regime, Reconstructing a Nation", Third World Quarterly, Vol. 26, No. 4&5, 2005, pp. 571-592
- (2005) "Reconstructing Post-Saddam Iraq: an Introduction", Third World Quarterly, Vol. 26, No. 4&5, 2005, pp. 565-570
- (2004) "The Reconstruction of Housing in Palestine 1993-2000: A Case Study from Gaza Strip", Housing Studies, Vol 19, No 2, March, pp. 175-192, with G. Elkahlout & T. Jacoby
- (2003) "Being Lokalci: Evaluating the Impact of International Aid Agencies on Local Human Resources: The Case of Post-war Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina", The European Journal of Development Research, Vol.15, No.1, pp. 55-72, with Z. Kapisazovic
- (2002) "Winning and Losing in Aceh: Five Key Dilemmas in Third-Party Intervention", Civil Wars, Vol 5, Issue No.4, pp. 1-32, with David Connolly and Judith Large
- (2002) "Setting the scene for Afghanistan's reconstruction: the challenges and critical dilemmas", Third World Quarterly, Vol. 23, No.5, 2002, pp. 801-816
- (2002) "Exploited by whom? An alternative perspective on humanitarian assistance to Afghan women", Third World Quarterly, Vol. 23, No.5, 2002, pp. 909-930, with G. Wardell
- (2002) "Theories, rhetoric and practice: recovering the capacities of war-torn societies", Third World Quarterly, Vol. 23, No.5, 2002, pp.817-836, with M. Chard
- (2002) "The composite approach: research design in the context of war and armed conflict", Third World Quarterly, Vol. 23, No.5, pp. 991-1003, with M. Chard, T. Jacoby & W. Lume
- (2002) "'The Macro-Economic Impact of Disasters', Progress in Development Studies, Vol.2, Issue No. 4, pp. 283-305, with A. Ozerdem & M. Pelling
- (2000) "After the Marmara Earthquake: Lessons for Avoiding Short Cuts to Disasters", Third World Quarterly, Vol. 21, No 3, pp. 425-439, with A. Ozerdem
- (2000) "Forced migration and dilemmas of humanitarian assistance: challenges for applied research", Norwegian Journal of Geography, Vol. 54, No. 3, pp. 134-136, with A. Strand
- (2000) "The Cultural Heritage and the Nature of Disasters in Jordan and Palestine", Cultural Resource Management, Vol. 23, No.6, pp. 39-43, with R. Daher
Founder and co-editor of the Palgrave Critical Studies in Post-Conflict Recovery, with S. Milton.
The following volumes have been published as part of this series:
From War to Peace in the Balkans, the Middle East and Ukraine, by Daniel Serwer
Guest Editor of Academic Journals
- (2005) 'Reconstructing Post-Saddam Iraq: A Quixotic Beginning to the ‘Global Democratic Revolution', Third World Quarterly, Vol. 26, No 4&5
- (2002) 'Reconstructing War-torn Societies: Afghanistan', Third World Quarterly, Vol. 23, No.5, 2002
- (1995) 'War and its aftermath: rebuilding war-torn societies', Disaster Prevention and Management, MCB University Press, Vol.4, No.1
Editor of a book series
Founder and Editor of the International Library of Post-war Reconstruction and Development, published by I.B. Tauris. The following volumes have been published as part of this series:
- (2006) Disaster Management and Civil Society: Earthquake Relief in Japan, Turkey and India
- (2008) Post-war Recovery: Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration
- (2009) Violence and Post-war Reconstruction: Managing Insecurity in the Aftermath of Peace Accords
- (2010) Gender Paradoxes of War and Peace
- (2010) Development and Demining
- (2010) Ethnicity and Conflict: Cultural Identity and Post-war Reconstruction
- (2011) Palestinian Refugees in Lebanon
- (2013) (with F. Hardman, B. Rohwerder & K. Rzeszut) The Evidence for the Sustainable Scale-up of Low-cost Private Schools in South West Asia: London: EPPI-Centre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London
- (2012) The Qatari Spring: Qatar's emerging role in peacemaking. Kuwait Programme on Development, Governance and Globalisation in the Gulf States: London School of Economics
- (2012) Dividing Water: localised water-related conflict in Egypt. PRDU Working Paper Series, No. 4
- (2012) (with S. Milton) Qatar’s Role in Conflict and Peace: An Assessment of Motivations and Influence: Saferworld
- (2012) (with F.Hardman, K. Rzeszut & C.Walker) Building a Culture of Resilience: the Final Report of the Evaluation of Capacity Development in, and its Impact on Institutionalisation of, Emergency Response Preparedness (EPD) and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) in the Education Sector of ESAR: ESAR Office, UNICEF
- (2011) (with K. Rzeszut & N. Martin) What is the track record of multi donor trust funds in improving aid effectiveness? An assessment of the available evidence: London, EPPI-Centre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London
- (2010) (with F. Hardman, D. Connolly, V. Sundaram and S. Zyck) Programme Review and Evaluability Study (PRES): UNICEF’s Education in emergencies & Post-Crisis Transition (EEPCT) Programme. UNICEF, pp. 238
- (2010) (with S. Zyck) Gulf State Assistance to Conflict-Affected Environments. Kuwait Programme on Development, Governance, and Globalisation in the Gulf States: London School of Economics, pp. 72
- (2010) (with S. Zyck) Development Assistance to the MENA Region’s Zones of Conflict and Fragility: A Background Paper to the World Bank’s 2011 MENA World Development Report: World Bank
- (2009) (with S. Zyck and J. Hunt) The Reconstruction of Gaza: A Guidance Note for Palestinian and International Stakeholders, York: Post-war Reconstruction and Development Unit
- (2008) (with S. Zyck) Housing Compensation and Emergency Preparedness in the Aftermath of the July 2006 War in Southern Lebanon, a report commissioned and published by the Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC), Beirut pp.117
- (2008) Synthesis Report of the 'Understanding Afghanistan' Initiative, for DFID, pp. 73
- (2008) A Strategic Conflict Assessment of Afghanistan, a report for DFID as part of the 'Understanding Afghanistan' initiative, pp. 106
- (2008) (with S. Zyck) Final Report of the Independent Mid-Term Evaluation of the NATO/PfP Trust Fund Programme for Assistance to Redundant Military Personnel in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sarajevo: NATO and the International Organisation for Migration, pp. 60
- (2008) (with D. Connolly) Understanding Reconstruction after War: A Critical Review of Tiri’s NIR Country Studies: London : Tiri, pp. 24
- (2007) Review of the United Kingdom’s Operational Responses to International Disasters: UK Higher Education Disaster Relief Project, HEFCE
- (2007) Responding to Disasters: From Providing Relief to Building Resilience: UK Higher Education Disaster Relief Project, HEFCE
- (2006) Governance and Recovery in Darfur: UNDP Options for Community Empowerment and DPA Institutional Development, York, University of York: 7 September, pp. 34
- (2006) Final Report of the NSP mid-term Evaluation, York, University of York: May, pp. 1 - 350 (with M. Chard, D. Connolly, M. Evans and R. Jones)
- (2006) (with R. Jones, G. Junne, G. Meijer, A. Mohammad and W. Verkoren Evaluation of Peace-building Activities financed by the Government of The Netherlands through the TMF Framework, Triple L bv., Amsterdam, pp. 190
- (2006) Responding to Conflict: Towards the Creation of Recovery Zones in Nepal, Kathmandu: United Nations Development Programme, pp. 29
- (2005) Recreating Trust in the Middle East: Counterpoint, London, Counterpoint: British Council, pp. 60
- (2004) Rebuilding Trust in the Muslim World; perceptions of the British Council in the Middle East, British Council, London
- (2004) (with R. Jones and W. Lume) Mapping Conflict in Uganda, the Government of Uganda and the European Commission pp.80
- (2004) (with S. Deely) The Sustainability of the Afghan Red Crescent Society: Kabul and Geneva, International Federation of the Red Cross, pp. 28
- (2003) Post-war Reconstruction: Forever Reinventing the Wheel? Outcome of a Dinner Discussion: London, The Royal Geographical Society, pp. 22
- (2003) Housing Reconstruction after Conflict and Disaster, London: Overseas Development Institute, pp. 46
- (2003) (with M. Evans & G. Wardell) Enhancing the Capacity of Public Administration in Afghanistan: Project Report: Brussels and Kabul, European Commission pp. 36
- (2002) (with R. Roberts) Women in Parliament: Training on Democracy Concepts, report from workshops held at the University of Jordan and the Jordan University of Science and Technology: Amman, Jordan, British Council, pp. 30
- (2002) Self-assessment and strategic planning: review of the activities of the Civil Society Development Centre at the Jordan University of Science and Technology: Amman, British Council, pp. 20
- (2001) (with M Evans & A. Strand) Preparing for Reconstruction and Development, Post-war Reconstruction and Development Unit, Department of Politics, University of York, April, report commissioned by the Consortium of Humanitarian Agencies pp. 25
- (2001) (with M. Evans & A. Strand) Back to Basics: Reconstruction and Development in Sri Lanka, Post-war Reconstruction and Development Unit, Department of Politics, University of York, June, report commissioned by the Consortium of Humanitarian Agencies in Sri Lanka, pp. 1 - 111
- (2001) (with G. Wardell) Afghan Women: Women’s Role in Afghanistan’s Reconstruction and Development, Working Paper 4: Geneva, the International Labour Organisation, pp. 65
- (2001) (with R. Aitken, D. Connolly & A. Strand) What Role can an Independent Humanitarian Organisation Play in Defusing a Conflict?: Geneva; HDC, pp. 241
- (2001) Reconstruction and Development in Comparative Perspective, Colombo, Consortium of Humanitarian Agencies in Sri Lanka, pp. 40
- (2000) (with W. Lume and N. Salvetti), Political Transformation in Indonesia, Humanitarian Needs in Aceh: Charting constructive dialogue between varying aspirations, Henry Dunant Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue, Geneva, pp.73
- (2000 – 2004) (with S. Deely), The rehabilitation of the Health Sector in the Puntland State of Somalia, IFRC and World Bank, Geneva, 6 volumes