Harvard referencing style

As used in: Archaeology, Biochemistry (as well as Vancouver), Biology (as well as Vancouver), Economics, Environment, Health Sciences, HYMS (as well as Vancouver), Management, Philosophy (as well as MLA), Politics, Sociology, Social Policy and Social Work, Theatre, Film and Televsion (as well as MHRA)

An A to Z of Harvard examples

An A to Z of Harvard example citations and references

Click here for Commonly used examples

Click here for Further examples 

Download - Harvard Style: Referencing with Confidence (printable booklet) (PDF  , 674kb)

Departmental variations

University of York department interpretations: Please be aware that there are departmental variations on Harvard style which listed below.

Archaeology: 
Archaeology prefer students to use page numbers for all in-text citations unless students are referring to a complete book in a very general sense. Anything more specific should have a page number. Archaeology also require the following in-text citation punctuation: (Lee 2012, 236) for in-text citation with page number and (Lee 2012) for in-text citation without page number.

Environment:
Environment ask that for multi-authored sources, given in the reference list, that the first 10 named authors are listed before the use of 'et al.' to indicate additional named authors.

 

Additional resources

Additional resources

University of York referencing guides and A to Z of examples www.york.ac.uk/integrity

‘Referencing the Discussion’ tutorial available in the Academic Skills Tutorials module on Yorkshare http://vle.york.ac.uk

Neville, C. (2010). The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism, 2nd ed. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2010). Cite them right: the essential referencing guide, 8th ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan

 

 

What is the Harvard Style?

The Harvard style originated at Harvard University, but has been much adapted by individual institutions. There is no set manual or formatting rules for Harvard as there is for some other referencing systems. Harvard is a style for citing sources by giving the name of the author and the date of their publication in the text of a piece of writing, within brackets ( ), for example (Smith, 2016). A reference list of full bibliographic details is then given at the end, with sources listed in alphabetical order by author.

Harvard is the most widely used referencing system and, as a result, there are a number of interpretations of this style. It is extremely important to check and follow your Department's specific regulations.

Harvard is a style based on name, date details for general in-text citations e.g. (Johnson, 1998) and name, date, page number for more specific in-text citation e.g. (Johnson, 1998, p.103) or (Johnson, 1998, pp. 103 – 122).

It is important to give a page number in a Harvard in-text citation in the following circumstances:

  • when quoting directly
  • when referring to a specific detail in a text (a specific theory or idea, an illustration, a table, a set of statistics).

University of York department interpretations:

Archaeology: 
Archaeology prefer students to use page numbers for all in-text citations unless students are referring to a complete book in a very general sense. Anything more specific should have a page number. Archaeology also require the following in-text citation punctuation: (Lee 2012, 236) for in-text citation with page number and (Lee 2012) for in-text citation without page number.

Environment:
Environment ask that for multi-authored sources, given in the reference list, that the first 10 named authors are listed before the use of 'et al.' to indicate additional named authors.

Language and Linguistic Science: 
If using secondary citations (for example Smith (2000) cited in Jones (2010, p.5)) references should be given for both the sources mentioned.

How do I format in-text citations?

The Harvard style requires you to include the name of the author and the date of their publication in ( ) and, when appropriate, to add a page number. There are different ways in which you can integrate an in-text citation, depending on how you are using the source in your writing and where in the sentence the citation will be placed. For example:

“Choking under pressure refers to performing worse than expected in situations with a high degree of perceived importance (Baumeister, 1984; Beilock and Gray, 2007). Following a conceptual framework presented by Baumeister (1997) to explain...”

(Taken from: Jordet, G., Hartman, E. and Jelle Vuijk, P. (2016). Team history and choking under pressure in major soccer penalty shootouts. British Journal of Psychology, 103(2), 268–283).

The in-text citation examples given throughout this guide give the version (Neville, 2010) for illustrative purposes.

How do I effectively cite quotations?

Quotations are word-for-word text included in your work and must be clearly distinguished from your own words and ideas. For short quotations (of less than 40 words), use a brief phrase within your paragraph or sentence to introduce the quotation before including it inside double quotation marks “ “. For example:

As Neville (2010) emphasises, “you should cite all sources and present full details of these in your list of references” (p.37).

For longer quotations (of 40 words or more) you use block quotation, without quotation marks, but clearly indented to indicate these words are not your own. For example:

Neville (2010, p. 38) comments that:

It can sometimes be difficult, if not impossible, to avoid using some of the author’s original words, particularly those that describe or label phenomena. However, you need to avoid copying out what the author said, word for word. Choose words that you feel give a true impression of the author’s original ideas or action.

NB: Note the inclusion of page numbers to the in-text citations for the above examples.

When must I use page numbers in my in-text citations?

It is important to give a page number to an in-text citation in the following circumstances:

  • when quoting directly
  • when referring to a specific detail in a text (for example, a specific theory or idea, an illustration, a table, a set of statistics).

This might mean giving an individual page number or a small range of pages from which you have taken the information. Giving page numbers enables the reader to locate the specific item to which you refer.

Are in-text citations included in my word count?

Usually in-text citations will be included in your word count as they are integral to your argument. This may vary depending on the assignment you are writing and you should confirm this with your module tutor. If in-text citations are included this does not mean you should leave out citations where they are appropriate.

What is the difference between a reference list and a bibliography?

References are the items you have read and specifically referred to (or cited) in your assignment. You are expected to list these references at the end of your assignment, this is called a reference list or bibliography. These terms are sometimes used in slightly different ways. A bibliography is sometimes used to refer to a list of everything you consulted in preparation for writing your assignment, whether or not you referred specifically to it in the assignment. A reference list will include all the references that you have cited in the text. You would normally only have one list, headed ‘references’ or ‘bibliography’, and you should check with your department which you are required to provide.

What if an author I am referencing has published two or more works in one year?

In this case you can simply use lower-case letters: a, b, c, etc to differentiate between different works within one given year. For example:

In-text: (Carroll, 2007a; Carroll 2007b)

Bibliography/ reference list:

Carroll, J. (2007a). A handbook for deterring plagiarism in higher education. Oxford: Oxford Centre for Staff and Learning Development, Oxford Brookes University.

Carroll, J. (2007b). Do national statistics about plagiarism tell you about your students? LINK Newsletter on Academic Integrity. The Hospitality, Sport and Leisure Subject Centre, 18, 3-9.

What if I cannot locate the name of an author of a source?

It is important to use quality sources to support your arguments and so you should carefully consider the value of using any source when you cannot identify its author. For online sources, look carefully for named contributors, such as in the ‘about us’ sections. For printed material look carefully at the publication/ copyright information, which is often on the inside cover of a book or back page of a report. If you cannot locate the information you could use the name of the organisation, for example ‘OECD’ for the author.

What if I cannot locate the date of a source?

Knowing when a source was created, published, or last updated is important as this helps you to determine the currency of the source. How current a source is relates, for example, to being contemporary to an event or containing the latest research findings. For online sources look carefully for created and/ or last updated dates on the page(s) you are using and similarly look carefully for named contributors, such as in the ‘about us’ sections. For printed material, especially historical sources where the exact date is unclear you could use ‘circa’ or ‘c’ before the date to indicate the approximate date of publication. For example:

Jones, M. (circa 1897). Memories of the diamond jubilee. London: Back Street Press.

Should I include web addresses in an in-text citation?

No. If the website has an author, cite the source as you would anything else, for example (Gillett, 2016). If there is no author, use the organisation name or the title of the web page. Full details of the website will be given in the bibliography/ reference list.

Should I use secondary references?

A secondary reference is given when you are referring to a source which you have not read yourself, but have read about in another source, for example referring to Jones’ work that you have read about in Smith. Avoid using secondary references wherever possible and locate the original source and reference that. Only give a secondary reference where this is not possible and you deem it essential to use the material. It is important to think carefully about using secondary references as the explanation or interpretation of that source by the author you have read may not be accurate.

What if I want to use a number of sources in one in-text citation?

If, for example, you are pulling together a number of sources to support your argument you may want to use a number of sources in one in-text citation. For example:

As is widely stated in the literature... (Ryan, 2016; Davies, 2011; Warwick, 2007).

They should appear in date order, the most recent one first. 

What is the Harvard convention for using capital letters?

You should only capitalise the first letter of the first word of a book, journal article etc. The exception is the names of organisations.

What abbreviations can I use?

Abbreviation

Meaning

ch. or chap.

chapter

ed.

edition

Ed. or Eds.

editor(s)

et al.

and others

n.d.

no date

no.

(issue) number

p.

page (single)

pp.

pages (page range)

ser.

Series

supp.

supplement

tab.

Table

vol.

Volume

integrity@york.ac.uk

@University of York 2016