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The Findings

We found that:

  • Chest pain predicts symptoms of anxiety and depression in the long term.
  • Symptoms of anxiety predict chest pain only in the short term.
  • Symptoms of depression might be a protective factor for chest pain.
  • Anxiety and depression tend to be consequences of pain rather than causes of it.
Our finding that chest pain in CHD is a much stronger predictor for anxiety and depression than the other way around, and the differences between anxiety and depression, may have consequences for treatment.