We found that:
- Chest pain predicts symptoms of anxiety and depression in the long term.
- Symptoms of anxiety predict chest pain only in the short term.
- Symptoms of depression might be a protective factor for chest pain.
- Anxiety and depression tend to be consequences of pain rather than causes of it.
Our finding that chest pain in CHD is a much stronger predictor for anxiety and depression than the other way around, and the differences between anxiety and depression, may have consequences for treatment.