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Science, Education & Society - EDU00036M

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  • Department: Education
  • Module co-ordinator: Dr. Lynda Dunlop
  • Credit value: 20 credits
  • Credit level: M
  • Academic year of delivery: 2018-19
    • See module specification for other years: 2019-20

Module summary

From genetic and reproductive technologies to human spaceflight, or to dealing with the consequences of climate change, science permeates our lives in a variety of ways. Governments see science as central to economic development and national prosperity yet the links between science and corporate interests leave some wary of the products of science. This complex set of influences raises many questions about the relationship between science and society, which have significant implications for formal and informal education.  In this module, we examine key questions about science, education and society: its aims and purposes, contexts and who participates and responses to some of the challenges facing science education. You do not need to have studied science previously to take this module.

Module will run

Occurrence Teaching cycle
A Autumn Term 2018-19

Module aims

This module looks at the role of science within educational processes, and at the relationships between science, education and society more generally. We will examine the aims and purposes of science education, and explore issues concerning school and university science education, and engagement with science beyond the classroom. We will analyse responses to the challenges facing science education, and possible ways of improving its effectiveness.

Module learning outcomes

After completing the module, you will:
•    Have a better understanding of the arguments for giving science a prominent place in the formal curriculum, and for seeking to promote scientific literacy and public understanding of science.
•    Know how science is included in national curricula.
•    Have an understanding of some key issues concerning the image of science among learners, and the response of learners to science.
•    Be able to discuss some of the key issues associated with the teaching and learning of science.
•    Be able to engage critically with a range of sources dealing with formal and informal science education.

Module content

Module Structure (week by week):

Week 2 - What is science education for?
This class will consider the questions ‘what is science?’ and ‘what is science education for?’ and in doing so will make distinctions between science and other disciplines, in particular in terms of how scientific knowledge is created and the role of empirical observation and theory in the furthering of scientific knowledge.  We will examine the purpose of science education and look at how the answer to this question shapes our views of what ought to happen in science lessons.

Week 3 - Science around us.
This session aims to raise awareness of the pervasive presence of science in our lives, and particularly of cutting-edge science research as represented in the media. We will examine how the relationship between the worlds of science and mass media impact on the general public and review the ways in which the education system can encourage critical engagement with science in the media.

Week 4 - Scientific literacy.
In this session we will revisit the purposes of science education, and examine what is meant by scientific literacy. We will consider the implications of this for what is, and what should be, taught in school science.

Week 5 - Science in informal settings.
This class will raise awareness of different contexts for science learning, and will involve considering the role of the informal sector in engagement with science, factors influencing the effectiveness of science education beyond the classroom, and the related evidence.

Week 6 - Learning theory and science.
Why is science difficult to learn? In this session we will consider the contribution that theories of learning can make to answering this question, and we will look at different models of instruction, including transmissive and constructivist approaches.

Week 7 - Secondary science.
This session will focus on key issues in the teaching of science to young people aged 11-18. We will consider the role of practical work and the debate surrounding process- and content-led approaches. We will examine research on young people’s attitudes towards science, and issues relating to teacher recruitment and retention.

Week 8 - Tertiary science.
This session will focus on key issues relating to the teaching and learning of science at the tertiary level, for example in the context of undergraduate courses. We will explore some key research findings related to science education at this educational level, for example those relating to the effectiveness of various instructional approaches.

Week 9 - Widening participation in science.
This class we will examine who participates in science and consider what has been done, and what (if anything) should be done to increase the participation of under-represented groups in learning and/or practicing science. We will consider recent research relating to participation in science, with a particular focus on gender-related issues.

Week 10 - Early years and primary science.
In this class, we will examine how ‘science’ is placed in the early years foundation stage and in primary science. We will look at play in relation to theories of learning and will examine the characteristics of science-related learning activities in the early years and in the primary school, and the extent to which these represent authentic science.

Private Study - Hours.

Private study includes preparation of the summative assessment task, preparatory work for weekly lectures. This might include reading, contributing the the VLE, submitting work for formative feedback or completing tasks to be used in lectures.

Assessment Details

You will be assessed on the module learning outcomes by preparing a 5000 word written assignment.  In this assessment, you must demonstrate that you have understood several themes from across the module such as the nature of science, the purposes of science education (including an understanding of science education for scientific literacy), how children learn science (in formal, non-formal and informal settings), issues across primary, secondary and tertiary science education, and who participates in science.  You will be marked using the marking criteria, available in the handbook. Further guidance will be provided in the first class session and on the VLE.


Task Length % of module mark
N/A 100

Special assessment rules



Task Length % of module mark
N/A 100

Module feedback

You will receive feedback in a range of ways throughout this module. This will include oral feedback in class, responses to posts on the VLE discussion board and written comments on work. You will have the chance to obtain feedback on your writing during the module, and you will have a short one-to-one meeting with a module tutor to discuss assessments.

You will be provided physical written feedback on assignment report sheets as well as them being readily available on the VLE. Feedback in the department will take 4 to 6 weeks.

Indicative reading

Braund, M.¿; R., & Reiss, M. J. (1958). Learning science outside the classroom / edited by Martin R. Braund & Michael Reiss. (p. xiv, 238 p.¿:). London: RoutledgeFalmer.

Braund, M. and R. (2006). Towards a more authentic science curriculum: The contribution of out-of-school learning. International Journal of Science Education, 28(12), 1373–1388.

Corrigan, D. D., & Gunstone, R. (2007). The re-emergence of values in science education / edited by Deborah Corrigan, Justin Dillon, Richard Gunstone. (p. vii, 279 p.¿:). Rotterdam¿:: Sense Publishers

Dewitt, J. (2015). Who Aspires to a Science Career? A comparison of survey responses from primary and secondary school students. International Journal of Science Education,, 37(13), 21–.

Driver, R. (1986). Students’ thinking and the learning of science: A constructivist view. School Science Review, 67, 443–456.

Haynes, R. (2003). From Alchemy to Artificial Intelligence: Stereotypes of the Scientist in Western Literature. Public Understanding of Science, 12, 243–253. doi:10.1177/0963662503123003

Jenkins, E. W. (2005). Important but not for me: Students’ attitudes towards secondary school science in England. Research in Science & Technological Education, 23(1), 41–57.

Jenkins, E. W. (2010). How might research inform scientific literacy in schools? / Edgar Jenkins. Education in Science., 239, 26–27.

Mortimer, E. F., & Scott, P. (2003). Teaching science, learning science. In Meaning making in secondary science classrooms / Eduardo Mortimer and Phil Scott. (p. x, 141 p.). Maidenhead¿:: Open University Press.

Osborne, J., & Dillon, J. (2010). Good practice in science teaching: What research has to say (2nd ed.). Maidenhead ; New York: Open University Press.

McClune, B. (2010). Critical reading of science-based news reports: Establishing a knowledge, skills and attitudes framework. International Journal of Science Education, 32(6), 727–752.

McGregor, D. and Kearton, G. (2010). What do researchers say about scientific literacy in schools? Education in Science, 240, 22–23.

Rennie, P. (2002). Teachers’ implementation of gender-inclusive instructional strategies in single sex and mixed-sex science classrooms. International Journal of Science Education, 24(9), 881–897.
Thomas and Durant. (1987). Why should we promote the public understanding of science? Scientific Literacy Papers: A Journal of Research in Science, Education and Research. Retrieved from

Wellington, J. J., & Wellington, J. J. (1989). What is “scientific method” and can it be taught? In Skills and processes in science education¿: a critical analysis / edited by Jerry Wellington. (p. x, 152 p.¿:). London¿;: Routledge.

Carl Wieman. (2007). Why not try a scientific approach to science education? Change, 5.

The information on this page is indicative of the module that is currently on offer. The University is constantly exploring ways to enhance and improve its degree programmes and therefore reserves the right to make variations to the content and method of delivery of modules, and to discontinue modules, if such action is reasonably considered to be necessary by the University. Where appropriate, the University will notify and consult with affected students in advance about any changes that are required in line with the University's policy on the Approval of Modifications to Existing Taught Programmes of Study.

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