An A to Z of further OSCOLA example citations and references

Please note: Most sources are cited in the same way in the bibliography as they are in the footnote with the following exceptions: : (1) the author’s surname should precede his or her initial(s), with no comma separating them, but a comma after the final initial; (2) only initials should be used, and not forenames; and (3) the titles of unattributed works should be preceded by a double dash --. Cases, Legislation and secondary sources are listed separately in the bibliography in alphabetic order

More examples are available at OSCOLA 4th ed. 
Quick guide to OSCOLA
Referencing with Confidence OSCOLA Portsmouth University referencing guide

Bills

Cite a Bill by its title, the House in which it originated, the Parliamentary session in brackets, and the running number assigned to it. Running numbers for House of Commons Bills are put in square brackets; those for House of Lords Bills are not. When a Bill is reprinted at any stage it is given a new running number.

Title | HC Bill | (session) | [number] OR title | HL Bill | (session) | number

Footnote and bibliography: 
Academies HL Bill (2010-11) 1, cl 8(2)
Consolidated Fund HC Bill (2008–09) [5]

In the bibliography, list bills in alphabetical order under the heading Secondary Sources.

Copied from 2.4.5 OSCOLA 4th edn. 

Blog

Websites and blogs Where there is no relevant advice elsewhere in OSCOLA, follow the general principles for secondary sources when citing websites and blogs. If there is no author identified, and it is appropriate to cite an anonymous source, begin the citation with the title in the usual way. If there is no date of publication on the website, give only the date of access.

Author, 'Web page title' (Website in Italics, Full Date) <URL> accessed Date

Footnote: 
Sarah Cole, ‘Virtual Friend Fires Employee’ (Naked Law, 1 May 2009) <http://www.nakedlaw.com/2009/05/index.html> accessed 19 November 2009.

Bibliography:
Cole S, ‘Virtual Friend Fires Employee’ (Naked Law, 1 May 2009) <http://www.nakedlaw.com/2009/05/index.html> accessed 19 November 2009

See OSCOLA 4th edn 3.4.8 for more details. 

Book (translated from another language)

Peter Birks and Grant McLeod (trs), The Institutes of Justinian (Duckworth 2007)

If there is an author and translator, cite as follows:

K Zweigert and H Kötz, An Introduction to Comparative Law (Tony Weir tr, 3rd edn, OUP 1998)

See 3.2.2  OSCOLA 4th ed. for more details. 

Book in another language

Cite the primary source in the original language if you have read it in that language otherwise cite the translation. 

Footnote: 
1. Joseph Hoops, Kommentar zum Beowulf. [Commentary on Beowulf]. (Carl Winters Universitatsbuchhandlung 1932).

Bibliography: 
Hoops J, Kommentar zum Beowulf. [Commentary on Beowulf]. (Carl Winters Universitatsbuchhandlung 1932)

See 1.4 OSCOLA 4th edn for more details. 

Book reviews

Cite a book review in the same way as a journal article, but without the quote marks. For example,

1. Rowan Cruft, Title of Book Review (2011) Law & Philosophy 637.

Bibliography: 
Cruft R, Title of Book Review (2011) Law & Philosophy 637

Copied from OSCOLA FAQs

Command Paper

The abbreviation preceding a command paper number depends on the year of publication:

1833–69 (C (1stseries)) 1870–99 (C (2nd series)) 1900–18 (Cd) 1919–56 (Cmd) 1957–86 (Cmnd) 1986– (Cm)

Footnotes and bibliography:
Home Office, Report of the Royal Commission on Capital Punishment (Cmd 8932, 1953) para 53
Department for Children, Schools and Families, 2008 Autumn Performance Report (Cm 7507, 2008) 54
Department for International Development, Eliminating World Poverty: Building our Common Future (White Paper, Cm 7656, 2009) ch 5

In the bibliography, list Command Papers alphabetically by author in Secondary Sources. 

For more details see 3.4.3 OSCOLA 4th ed. 

Conference papers

Ben McFarlane and Donal Nolan, ‘Remedying Reliance: The Future Development of Promissory and Proprietary Estoppel in English Law’ (Obligations III conference, Brisbane, July 2006)

See 3.4.6 OSCOLA 4th ed. for more details. 

Dictionaries

For a hard copy book:

Footnote:
'no-fault compensation', Oxford Dictionary of Law (7th edn, OUP 2013).

For online dictionaries:

Also consider elements of the style advice for websites and blogs (section 3.4.8). For the OED online, open the full entry for the word, and click on the Cite button (top right above the definition). Follow that example, tidying it up to make it consistent with OSCOLA styles (eg, change change double quotes to single and full stops to commas, removing those that are unnecessary; change OED Online to italics; change Oxford University Press to OUP and put it before the date; and remove http:// from the web address and delete any text after the Entry number, then put angle brackets around the url):

Footnote:
'philosophy, n' (OED Online, OUP June 2013) <www.oed.com/view/Entry/142505> accessed 21 August 2013.

For other online dictionaries, follow the general advice above. You need a date of publication or at least a date of access (ie when you looked at it), as they are generally updated regularly.

Copied from OSCOLA FAQs. 

 

Email

When citing personal communications, such as emails and letters, give the author and recipient of the communication, and the date. If you are yourself the author or recipient of the communication, say ‘from author’ or ‘to author’ as appropriate.

Footnote:
1. Email from Amazon.co.uk to author (16 December 2008)

See 3.4.11 OSCOLA 4th edn for more details

Encyclopedia

Cite as a book but exclude author or editor and publisher. Include the edition and year. Pinpoints such as volumes and page numbers come after the publication information. If citing an online encyclopaedia, igve the web address and date of access.

Halsbury’s Laws (5th edn, 2010) vol 57, para 53.

CJ Friedrich, ‘Constitutions and Constitutionalism’, International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences III (1968) 319 Leslie Green, ‘Legal Positivism’, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall edn, 2009) accessed 20 November 2009

If citing an online encyclopedia, give the URL and date of access:

Leslie Green, ‘Legal Positivism’, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall edn, 2009) <http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/legal-positivism/>accessed 2 Sept 2016. 

See OSCOLA 4th edn 3.2.6 for more details. 

Entry in a reference book

footnote: 
1. P Scratan and K Chadwick, 'Critical research', Sage Dictionary of Criminology (2001) 46.

Bibliography: 
Scratan P and Chadwick K, 'Critical research', Sage Dictionary of Criminology (2001) 

List in the bibliography in alphabetical order under Secondary Sources. 

European Court of justice case

Case T-162/06 Kronoply v Commission [2006] OJ C212/30

European Union regulation

Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2015/1992 establishing the standard import values for determining the entry price of certain fruit and vegetables [2015]  OJ L 290/12

Hansard and Parliamentary Reports

There are three series of Hansard, one reporting debates on the floor of the House of Commons, one debates in the House of Lords, and one debates in the Public Bill committees of the House of Commons, which replaced standing committees in 2007. When referring to the first two series, cite the House abbreviation (HL or HC), followed by ‘Deb’, then the full date, the volume and the column. Use ‘col’ or ‘cols’ for column(s). In the House of Commons, written answers are indicated by the suffix ‘W’ after the column number; in the House of Lords, they are indicated by the prefix ‘WA’ before the column number.

HL Deb OR HC Deb | date, | volume, | column

HC Deb 3 February 1977, vol 389, cols 973–76 40

HC Deb 4 July 1996, vol 280, col 505W

HL Deb 21 July 2005, vol 673, col WA261

HL Deb 12 November 2009, vol 714, col 893

See 3.4.2 OSCOLA 4th ed. for more details. 

Interviews

When citing an interview you conducted yourself, give the name, position and institution (as relevant) of the interviewee, and the location and full date of the interview. If the interview was conducted by someone else, the interviewer’s name should appear at the beginning of the citation.

Footnotes and bibliograpy:
Interview with Irene Kull, Assistant Dean, Faculty of Law, Tartu University (Tartu, Estonia, 4 August 2003)
Timothy Endicott and John Gardner, Interview with Tony Honoré, Emeritus Regius Professor of Civil Law, University of Oxford (Oxford, 17 July 2007)

See 3.4.10 OSCOLA 4th ed. for more details. 

Letter

When citing personal communications, such as emails and letters, give the author

and recipient of the communication, and the date. If you are yourself the author or

recipient of the communication, say ‘from author’ or ‘to author’ as appropriate.

Footnote and bibliography:
Letter from Gordon Brown to Lady Ashton (20 November 2009)

Newspaper article

When citing newspaper articles, give the author, the title, the name of the newspaper in italics and then in brackets the city of publication and the date. Some newspapers have ‘The’ in the title and some do not. If known, give the number of the page on which the article was published, after the brackets. If the newspaper is divided into sections, and the page numbering begins afresh in each section, put the section name in roman before the page number, with a space but no comma between the two. If the reference is to an editorial, cite the author as ‘Editorial’. If the article is sourced from the web and there is no page number available, provide the web address and date of access.

Footnotes:
1. Jane Croft, ‘Supreme Court Warns on Quality’ Financial Times (London, 1 July 2010) 3.
2. Ian Loader, ‘The Great Victim of this Get Tough Hyperactivity is Labour’ The Guardian (London, 19 June 2008) <www.guardian.co.uk commentisfree> accessed 19 November 2009.

Bibliography: 
Croft J, ‘Supreme Court Warns on Quality’ Financial Times (London, 1 July 2010) 
Loader I, ‘The Great Victim of this Get Tough Hyperactivity is Labour’ The Guardian (London, 19 June 2008) <www.guardian.co.uk commentisfree> accessed 19 November 2009

List under Secondary Sources

Copied from OSCOLA 4th edn 3.4.9 

Podcasts

The general principles for ‘other secondary sources’ (OSCOLA 4th ed. 3.4.1) suggest the following form for citing podcasts, YouTube videos and similar sources:

Author, ‘Title’ (publication date) <url> accessed xx month 2014

If there is no clear author, give the organisation providing the source as the author. The examples below include a suggestion for citing the comments of a particular person.

Examples:

Dr Douglas Guilfoyle, ‘The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea: Origins and Importance’ (14 August 2013) <www.youtube.com/watch?v=3SOqz1Yu8tY> accessed 15 April 2014.
British Medical Journal podcast, 'Insanity in the Dock' (20 July 2012) <www.bmj.com/podcast/2012/07/20/insanity-dock> accessed 15 April 2014.

If referring to comments by someone in particular, add that information as you would a pinpoint, before the url. Include the person's position if relevant. For example:

British Medical Journal podcast, 'Insanity in the Dock' (20 July 2012) comments by MatthewThompson, Centre for Evidence Based Medicine in Oxford <www.bmj.com/podcast/2012/07/20/insanity-dock> accessed 15 April 2014.

Another alternative, particularly if the podcast is quite long, would be to provide the minutes and seconds of the excerpt:

British Medical Journal podcast, 'Insanity in the Dock' (20 July 2012) 10:30-11:15 <www.bmj.com/podcast/2012/07/20/insanity-dock> accessed 15 April 2014.

Copied from OSCOLA FAQs 

Public communication

Author, 'Title' (additional information, publisher year)

Lord Bingham, ‘Keynote Address’ (Liberty conference, London, 6 June 2009) <http://www.liberty-human-rights.org.uk/publications/3-articles-and-speeches/index.shtml> accessed 19 November 2009
2 Stavros Dimas, EU Environment Commissioner, 'Improving Environmental Quality through Carbon Trading' (Speech at the Carbon Expo Conference, Köln, 2 May 2007) <http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=SPEECH/07/265> accessed 29 May 2011.

Examples taken from OSCOLA FAQs

Bibliography:

List by author in Secondary Sources 

Dimas S, EU Environment Commissioner, 'Improving Environmental Quality through Carbon Trading' (Speech at the Carbon Expo Conference, Köln, 2 May 2007) <http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=SPEECH/07/265> accessed 29 May 2011.

Radio programme

Footnote:
Speaker (if a direct quote)/Presenter, 'Title of the programme' (Radio station, date of the programme)

1. Simon Tonking, ‘Jury Trial’ (BBC Radio 4, 1 May 2010) <www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00s3gq7> accessed 15 February 2013.

For the bibliography, enter in alphabetical order in the Secondary Sources. If there is a direct quote/speaker, reverse the authors name as usual eg:
Tonking S,  ‘Jury Trial’ (BBC Radio 4, 1 May 2010) <www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00s3gq7> accessed 15 February 2013

 

 

Reports

Use this format:

Author, 'Title' (Additonal information, edition if later than first, Publisher day Month year if available) page number if required.

Footnotes: 
1. 
Law Commission, 'Housing: Encouraging Responsponsible Letting' (Law Com No 312 Cm 7458, TSO, 2008) [1.5].
2. W Anderson and P Weatherburn, 'Treatment Information Needs of People Living with HIV' (Research report Nam Publications 1996).

In the bibliography
List alphabetically in author order in secondary sources, giving the authors surname first eg:

Anderson W and Weatherburn P, 'Treatment Information Needs of People Living with HIV' (Research report Nam Publications 1996)

Republished source

Author, Title of book (First published publication year, Edition if late than first, publisher, publication year) page if required.

Footnote: 
1. 
Bernard Russell The Problems of Philosophy (first published 1912, 2nd edn, OUP 1998).

Bibliography:
Russell B The Problems of Philosophy (first published 1912, 2nd edn, OUP 1998)

Television programme

Footnote: 
Use the following format: Main contributor [Role of main contributor],'Title of programme' [Television series episode] in Title of series (Additional information if required, Publisher, Year )

1. Sukhi Bansal [Director], 'The Apprentice'  [Television series episode] in Discount Dealing (episode 3 Aug 12, BBC1, 2015)

If you wish to refer to someone speaking during the programme, follow this format: Cite the name of the speaker (if a direct quote), the title of the programme, the radio station and the date of the programme. If there is no obvious author/speaker, begin the citation with the title of the programme. If available online, include the url and date of access. For example:

Alan Sugar, ‘The Apprentice’ (episode 3, Aug 12, BBC1 2015) <www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b003344> accessed 15 February 2016.

Bibliography:
List under Secondary Sources in alphabetical order
Bansal S [Director], 'The Apprentice'  [Television series episode] in Discount Dealing (episode 3 Aug 12, BBC1, 2015)
Sugar, A, ‘The Apprentice’ (episode 3, Aug 12, BBC1 2015) <www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b003344> accessed 15 February 2016

 

Thesis

When citing an unpublished thesis, give the author, the title and then in brackets the type of thesis, university and year of completion.

Footnote: 
1. Javan Herberg, ‘Injunctive Relief for Wrongful Termination of Employment’ (DPhil thesis, University of Oxford 1989). 

Bibliography: 
Herberg J, ‘Injunctive Relief for Wrongful Termination of Employment’ (DPhil thesis, University of Oxford 1989)

Copied from 3.4.7 OSCOLA 4th edn.

UNICEF

UNICEF ‘Country programme document: China’ (10 August 2015) E/ICEF/2015/P/L.22

United Nations Court of Human Rights

UNHCR ‘Assistance to refugees, returnees and displaced persons in Africa. Report of the Secretary-General’ (22 August 2013) UN Doc A/68/341

 

Websites

If the information is available in print, reference the print version. If only available on the web, reference as follows: 

Footnote and Bibliography:
'Serving Magistrates by HMCTS Region, England and Wales, 31 March 2013, Diversity statistics and general overview 2013:’ (The Judicial Office 2013). <http://www.judiciary.gov.uk/publications/diversity-statistics-and-general-overview-2013/> accessed 17 November 2014.

OR

'Serving Magistrates 2013' (The Judicial Office 2013). <http://www.judiciary.gov.uk/publications/diversity-statistics-and-general-overview-2013/> accessed 17 November 2014.

In the bibliography, list in Secondary Sources. 

YouTube

PCMLP University of Oxford, ‘An introduction to Legal Citation Using OSCOLA’ <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GhMuHkjpxuk> accessed 04 November 2015