Commonly used sources OSCOLA

The examples are adapted from the OSCOLA 4th Edition, from Powell, D & Teare, E (2010) Writing for Law, and Foster, S (2013) How to write better Law essays

Act of Parliament

You should refer to the year the Act was passed rather than the year it came into force. 

Use the short title and refer to specific sections of the Act eg

In text:
Section 4(2) of the Human Rights Act 1998 states... 

 OR use s for Section in the middle of a sentence. For example:

in s 4(2) of the Human Rights Act 1998 and in ss 6-9 of that Act... 

Footnote: 
1 Bribery Act 2010 s 2 (1) (b)

NB: You do not need to footnote an Act if you make it identifiable in the text. 

Bibliography: 
List Legislation and Cases separately in alphabetical order in the bibliography. 

Cases

See the OSCOLA guides and our Referencing with Confidence OSCOLA Guide for more details. 

Case citations including neutral citations:
List cases in the bibliography in alphabetic order of case names. Use the following format to cite cases.

Case name in italics [year] court number, [year] OR (year) volume report abbreviation first page

Corr v IBC Vehicles Ltd [2008] UKHL 13, [2008] 1 AC 884.

Note: If you have included the case name in the text, you do not have to include the case names in the footnote:
In text: refer to the text giving case names in italics eg: In Phipps v Boardman31 …..
Footnote:
31 [1967] 2 AC 46 [HL]
32 Corr v IBC Vehicles Ltd [2008] UKHL 13, [2008] 1 AC 884.

Bibliography:
Corr v IBC Vehicles Ltd [2008] UKHL 13, [2008] 1 AC 884.
Phipps v Boardman [1967] 2 AC 46 [HL]

Note: For most sources in OSCOLA, the bibliographic format is the same as the footnote.
List legislation, cases and secondary sources in separate sections of your bibliography in alphabetical order. 

Case notes

Treat case notes with titles as if they were journal articles. Where there is no title, use the name of the case in italics instead, and add (note) at the end of the citation:

Andrew Ashworth, ‘R (Singh) v Chief Constable of the West Midlands Police’ [2006] Crim LR 441 (note)

See 3.3.2 OSCOLA 4th ed. for more details. 

Book 1 author

Capitalise the first letter of each major word of the title. Page numbers stand alone without p or pp. use the following format for the footnote:
Author, Title in Italics (edition, publisher date) page.
Footnote:
15. Roger O'Keefe, International Criminal Law (3rd edn, Oxford University Press 2015) 17.

Bibliography:
O'Keefe R, International Criminal Law (Oxford University Press 2015).

Book 2 or 3 authors

If the book has up to three authors, include ‘and’ in between each author. Use Initials or forename unpunctuated and with no spaces followed by surname. 

Author, Title in Italics Capitalising Major Words (Edition, Publisher Year) page. 

Footnote: 
1 CMV Clarkson and HM Keating and SR Cunningham, Criminal Law: Text and Materials (7th edn, Sweet & Maxwell 2010).
Stephen W Mayson, Derek French and Christopher L Ryan, Mayson, French & Ryan on Company Law (18th edn, Blackstone 2001) 22.

Bibliography: 
Clarkson CMV and Keating HM and Cunningham SR, Criminal Law: Text and Materials (7th edn, Sweet & Maxwell 2010)
Mayson SW, French D and Ryan CL , Mayson, French & Ryan on Company Law (18th edn, Blackstone 2001)

See 3.2 OSCOLA 4th edn for more details. 

Book (4 or more authors)

If a book has more than three authors, include ‘and others’ after the name of the first author.

1 Dick Hobbs and others, Bouncers: Violence and Governance in the Night-time Economy (OUP 2005) 

Bibliography:
Hobbs D and others, Bouncers: Violence and Governance in the Night-time Economy (OUP 2005) 

Chapter in an edited book

author, | ‘title mof chapter' | in editor (ed), | title in italics | (additional information, | publisher | year)

Footnote: 
1. Justine Pila, ‘The Value of Authorship in the Digital Environment’ in William H Dutton and Paul W Jeffreys (eds), World Wide Research: Reshaping the Sciences and Humanities ( 7th edn , MIT Press 2010)

Bibliography:
Pila, J, ‘The Value of Authorship in the Digital Environment’ in William H Dutton and Paul W Jeffreys (eds), World Wide Research: Reshaping the Sciences and Humanities ( 7th edn , MIT Press 2010)

See 3.2.3 OSCOLA 4th edn for more details. 

Edited book

Footnote:
1. Jeremy Horder (ed), Oxford Essays in Jurisprudence: Fourth Series (OUP 2000). 

Bibliography:
Horder J (ed), Oxford Essays in Jurisprudence: Fourth Series (OUP 2000)

 

See 3.2.2 OSCOLA 4th edn for more details. 

Journal article (print copy)

Footnotes:
author, | ‘title’ | [year] | journal name or abbreviation | first page of article,| specific page referred to

[OR]

author, | ‘title’ | (year) | volume | journal name or abbreviation | first page of article

Put a comma after the first page of the article if you want to refer to a particular page or set of pages:

1. JAG Griffith, ‘The Common Law and the Political Constitution’ (2001) 117 LQR 42, 64

If the year serves as the volume identifier, put the year in square brackets[]. If there is a separate volume number, put the year in round brackets ().

2. Paul Craig, ‘Theory, “Pure Theory” and Values in Public Law’ [2005] PL 440

3. Alison L Young, ‘In Defence of Due Deference’ (2009) 72 MLR 554

In the Young example, 72 is the volume number.

Bibliography:

Griffith JAG, ‘The Common Law and the Political Constitution’ (2001) 117 LQR 42
Young A, ‘In Defence of Due Deference’ (2009) 72 MLR 554

Note: Omit reference to specific page numbers (other than the first page of the article) in your bibliographic entry.

Journal article (electronic copy)

NOTE: If you source a publication online which is also available in hard copy, cite the hard copy version. There is no need to cite an electronic source for such a publication.

author, | ‘title’ | [year] OR (year) | volume/issue | journal name or abbreviation | <web address> | date accessed
Graham Greenleaf, ‘The Global Development of Free Access to Legal Information’ (2010) 1(1) EJLT accessed 27 July 2010.

If the information is only available online, give the URL before the accessed date information.

Bibliography:
Greenleaf G, ‘The Global Development of Free Access to Legal Information’ (2010) 1(1) EJLT <http://ejlt.org/article/view/17/39> accessed 27 July 2010

See 3.3.4 OSCOLA 4th edn for more details.