An A to Z of further MHRA example citations and references

Atlas

footnote
1 Concise World Atlas, 7th edn (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016), p. 42.

Bibliography
Concise World Atlas, 7th edn (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016)

Blog

Footnote:
1 Stephen Andrew Hiltner, ‘On Press with “The Paris Review”’, < http://www.theparisreview.org/blog/tag/stephen-hiltner/page/2/ > [accessed 31 Aug 2016].

Bibliography:
Andrew Hiltner, Stephen, ‘On Press with “The Paris Review”’, < http://www.theparisreview.org/blog/tag/stephen-hiltner/page/2/ > [accessed 31 Aug 2016]

Book (translated from another language)

Footnote:
1 Stieg Larsson, The Girl Who Played with Fire, trans. by Reg Keeland (New York: Vintage, 2010) , p. 403.

Bibliography:
Larsson, Stieg, The Girl Who Played with Fire, trans. by Reg Keeland (New York: Vintage, 2010)

Book in another language

Present the information in the language of origin if the book was read in that language. Otherwise give the details for the translation read. Use the language conventions for capitalisation.

Footnote:
1 Debra Linowitz Wentz, Fait et fiction: les formules pédagogiques des ‘Contes d’une grand-mère’ de George Sand (Paris: Nizet, 1985), p. 9.

Bibliography:
Linowitz Wentz, Debra, Fait et fiction: les formules pédagogiques des ‘Contes d’une grand-mère’ de George Sand (Paris: Nizet, 1985)

CD or DVD

Include composer or author; title of piece in italics; artist, orchestra etc separated by commas; recording company, CD reference, date in brackets().

Footnote:
1 Ballads of Love and Betrayal, Joglaresa, dir. by Belinda Sykes (Village Life, 01013VL, 2001).
2 Dylan Thomas, Under Milk Wood, read by Anthony Hopkins and Jonathan Pryce (LPF 7667, 1992).

Note: First names of composers, artists, conductors, may be omitted if not deemed necessary.

Bibliography:
Ballads of Love and Betrayal, Joglaresa, dir. by Belinda Sykes (Village Life, 01013VL, 2001)
Thomas, Dylan, Under Milk Wood, read by Anthony Hopkins and Jonathan Pryce (LPF 7667, 1992)

Conference papers

Give conference paper in single inverted commas and the title of the conference in Italics. If the paper has been published, give the details of the publisher and the page references, otherwise just give the location of the conference)

Footnote
1 C. Smith, 'Humanities in the Future', in Digital Humanities (University of Sheffield: University of Sheffield, 2016), pp. 24-26.

Bibliography
Smith, C, 'Humanities in the Future', in Digital Humanities (University of Sheffield: University of Sheffield, 2016)

Ebook

Give details of the type of digital file and give pages numbers where possible.

Footnote
1 Nicolas Jacobs, Early Welsh Gnomic and Nature Poetry (London: Modern Humanities Research Association, 2012), p. 10. Google ebook.

Bibliography
Jacobs, Nicolas, Early Welsh Gnomic and Nature Poetry (London: Modern Humanities Research Association, 2012), p. 10. Google ebook

Film

Footnote:
1 The Grapes of Wrath, dir. by John Ford (20th Century Fox, 1940).

Bibliography:
The Grapes of Wrath, dir. by John Ford (20th Century Fox, 1940)

Graph/Chart/Table/Figure

Use the term Figure and arabic numerals (1,2,3 etc) to identify graphs and figures and if necessary, allocate a footnote to them.

In text: Figure 1 Alain Delon.1

Interview (conducted by another)

Footnote:
1 Lana Wachowski, ‘Interview with Lana Wachowski ‘ (interviewed by Laurence Smith on The Matrix Reloaded) (DVD) (Los Angeles: Warner Brothers Inc., 2003).

2 Mary Beard, ‘A Roman holiday with Cicero’ (interviewed by M. Reisz for Times Higher Education, 19 April 2012, 48-49).

Bibliography:
Beard, Mary, ‘A Roman holiday with Cicero’ (interviewed by M. Reisz for Times Higher Education, 19 April 2012, 48-49)
Wachowski, Lana, ‘Interview with Lana Wachowski ‘ (interviewed by Laurence Smith on The Matrix Reloaded) (DVD) (Los Angeles: Warner Brothers Inc., 2003)

Lecture

Footnote:
1 Thomas Smith, The Mill on the Floss. Lecture from BA English Literature year 2. (York: University of York, 31 Oct 2016).

Bibliography:
Smith, Thomas, The Mill on the Floss. Lecture from BA English Literature year 2. (York: University of York, 31 Oct 2016)

Lecture notes

Footnote:
1 Thomas Smith, The Mill on the Floss. Lecture notes from BA English Literature year 2. (York: University of York, 31 Oct 2016).

Bibliography:
Smith, Thomas, The Mill on the Floss. Lecture notes from BA English Literature year 2. (York: University of York, 31 Oct 2016)

Musical score

Footnote:
1 Richard Wagner, Tristan und Isolde, study score, Edition Eulenburg no. 905 (London: Eulenburg, n.d.).
Note: n.d can be used to indicate no date known.

Bibliography:
Wagner, Richard, Tristan und Isolde, study score, Edition Eulenburg no. 905 (London: Eulenburg, n.d.)

Newspaper or magazine

Indicate date of issue, section where relevant and page numbers

Footnote:
1 Jonathan Friedland, ‘Across the Divide’, Guardian, 15 January 2002, section G2, pp. 10–1.

Bibliography:
Friedland, Jonathan, ‘Across the Divide’, Guardian, 15 January 2002, section G2, pp. 10–1

Notes: omit ‘The’ or ‘A’ when citing newspapers or magazines with the exception of The Times.
Newspapers and magazines use pp. to indicate the first and last pages of the article, unlike journal article citations.

Online digital media

References to online digital media should include the author, the title in italics, the type of source, the title of the website, the date of publication, the URL, and the date of access, e.g.:

Footnote:
1 Gabriel Dominato, Morceaux de conversation avec Jean-Luc Godard, online video recording, YouTube, 10 January 2013, < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0keNMXK5nvw > [accessed 31 Aug 2016].

Bibliography:
Dominato, Gabriel, Morceaux de conversation avec Jean-Luc Godard, online video recording, YouTube, 10 January 2013, < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0keNMXK5nvw > [accessed 31 Aug 2016]

Plays and long works

Small roman numerals should be used for the numbers and acts of plays eg iv. Smaller subdivisions such as scenes, chapters etc. are indicated by Arabic numbers eg 1,2,3. The first footnote should give full details, subsequent footnotes can use the title.

Footnotes:
1 William Shakespeare, The Merchant of Venice: A Comedy. By William Shakespeare (Edinburgh: printed by and for Martin & Wotherspoon, 1768).
-------------
4 The Merchant of Venice, ii. 3. 10.

Bibliography:
Shakespeare, William, The Merchant of Venice: A Comedy. By William Shakespeare (Edinburgh: printed by and for Martin & Wotherspoon, 1768)

 

Poem (in an anthology)

Footnote:
1 Edmund Wright, ‘The Storm’ in Wilting Flowers: An Anthology of Poetry ed. by Arthur Wavell, (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 2015) pp.14-15.

Bibliography:
Wright, Edmund, ‘The Storm’ in Wilting Flowers: An Anthology of Poetry ed. by Arthur Wavell, (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 2015)

 

Religious and sacred texts

Give full details in the first footnote. Subsequent footnotes can indicate book, chapter, verse etc.
Titles of books from the Bible are not italicised. Book numbers are given in roman numerals, chapter and verse numbers are given in arabic numerals (1,2,3 etc) separated by a full stop.

Footnote:
1 Stephen Prickett, The Bible. ed. by Robert Barnes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991).
2 Corinthians 5. 13-15.

Bibliography:
Prickett, Stephen, The Bible. ed. by Robert Barnes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991)

Secondary referencing

When you want to cite a comment about one author's work quoted in another author's work. 

Secondary referencing should be avoided as far as possible and the original source consulted and cited. If it is essential to use a secondary reference follow these guidelines:

Abbott has stated that John Clare wrote more poetry early in the day. 1


Footnote:
1 Colleer Abbott, The Life and Letters of George Darley, Poet and Critic, 2nd edn (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1967), p.59, quoted in Paul Chirico, John Clare and the Imagination of the Reader (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007), p.47.

Bibliography
Chirico, Paul, John Clare and the Imagination of the Reader (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007)

Note: Only list the source that you have actually read in your bibliography. 

Thesis

Footnotes:
1 Ching Chen, 'Impacts of Climate Warming on Range Shifts with Emphasis on Tropical Mountains' (PhD, University of York, 2012), p.17.

Bibliography:
Chen, Ching, 'Impacts of Climate Warming on Range Shifts with Emphasis on Tropical Mountains' (PhD, University of York, 2012

TV and radio programmes

Give the title of the specific episode if there is one in single inverted commas. Give the title of the series in italics.

Footnote:
1 Green Shoots from the Arab Spring’, Analysis, BBC Radio 4, 12 November 2012.
2 Newsnight, BBC2, 2 November 2012, 10.30pm.

Bibliography:
Green Shoots from the Arab Spring’, Analysis, BBC Radio 4, 12 November 2012
Newsnight, BBC2, 2 November 2012, 10.30pm

 

Twitter/Tweets

Short posts on Twittter or Facebook: ‘“tweet or Facebook post.” #hashtag(s) [if present in original post]’ (@handle, date).

Footnote:
1 ‘“Congratulations to Deep Blue Sea audience member @SadiqKhan on #100days as Mayor of London.” #LondonisOpen’ (@National Theatre, 16 August 2016).

Bibliography:
Note: list the tweet by the first major word
‘“Congratulations to Deep Blue Sea audience member @SadiqKhan on #100days as Mayor of London.” #LondonisOpen’ (@National Theatre, 16 August 2016)

Websites

Do not cite a web source unless there is no other version of that source. Cite the print version if that is available. Do not give a web address unless the source is only found via the web.

Footnote:
1 Erika Engelhaupt, ‘Butterflies Behaving Badly: What They Don’t Want You to Know’, National Geographic, 14 March, 2016 <http://phenomena.nationalgeographic.com/2016/03/14/butterflies-behaving-badly-what-they-dont-want-you-to-know/> [accessed 30 Aug 2016].

Bibliography:
Engelhaupt, Erika, ‘Butterflies Behaving Badly: What They Don’t Want You to Know’, National Geographic, 14 March, 2016 <http://phenomena.nationalgeographic.com/2016/03/14/butterflies-behaving-badly-what-they-dont-want-you-to-know/> [accessed 30 Aug 2016]