An A to Z of other Harvard example citations and references

Act of Parliament

In-text:(Education Act, 2011)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Education Act 2011, ch. 21. London: The Stationery Office.
NB The (c.21) refers to the chapter, the number of the Act according to those passed during the parliamentary session.

Atlas

In-text: (Master Atlas of Greater London, 2007)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Master atlas of Greater London. (2007). 11th ed. Sevenoaks: Geographer's A-Z Map Company.

Blog

In-text: (Carswell, 2012)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Carswell, D. (2012). Do ministers run the Treasury or does the Treasury run ministers? 15 April 2012. Douglas Carswell's Blog. [Online]. Available at: http://www.talkcarswell.com/disqus.aspx?id=2328 [Accessed 20 April 2011].

Book illustration

In-text: (Schwortz, 1978)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Schwortz, B. (1978). The shroud of Turin: carbon dated to the fourteenth century. In J.C. Robinson. The Turin Shroud. (2004). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p.7.

Book (translated from another language)

If you are reading an English language version of a book originally published in another language follow this example
In-text:(Larsson, 2009)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Larsson, S. (2009). The girl who played with fire. Translated from the Swedish by R. Keeland. London: MacLehose Press.

Book in another language

Follow this example if you read a book in another language and want to refer to it
In-text: (Hoops, 1932)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Hoops, J. (1932). Kommentar zum Beowulf. [Commentary on Beowulf]. Heidelberg: Carl Winters Universitatsbuchhandlung.

Computer application/program/software

In-text: (Autodesk, 2011)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Autodesk (2011). AutoCAD 2013. [Computer program]. Available http://usa.autodesk.com/autocad/ [Accessed 20 April 2012].

Conference proceedings (full)

In-text: (ALT-C, 2011)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
ALT-C(2011). Thriving in a colder and more challenging climate. Hawkridge, D., Ng, K. and Verjans, S. eds. The 18th annual conference of the Association for Learning Technology (ALT-C 2011), University of Leeds, Leeds, 6-8 September. ALT.

Conference paper (unpublished)

In-text: (Pettitt, 2008)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Pettitt, R. (2008). Parliament of the movement? The changing fortunes of the Labour Party Conference. Unpublished paper presented at ‘Democracy, governance and conflict: dilemmas of theory and practice’. 58th Political Studies Association Conference. 1-3 April 2008. Swansea.

Dance

In-text: (Beauty and the Beast, 2012)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Beauty and the Beast (2012). [Ballet]. D. Nixon (Choreographer). Leeds: Northern Ballet.

Database (Internet, DVD or CD) with author

In-text: (Ralchenko, Kramida and Reader, 2011)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Ralchenko, Y., Kramida, A. and Reader, J. (2011). NIST atomic spectra database. Version 4. [Online]. Available at: http://www.nist.gov/pml/data/asd.cfm [Accessed 21 April 2012].

Database (Internet, DVD or CD) without author

In-text: (Oxford language dictionaries online, 2007)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Oxford language dictionaries online (2007). [Online]. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Available at: http://www.oxfordlanguagedictionaries.com/ [Accessed 21 April 2012].

Diary

In-text: (Larkham, 2011)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Larkham, T. (2011). The diary of Thomas Larkham, 1647-1669. S. Hardman Moore, ed. Woodbridge: Boydell.

Dictionary (with editor)

In-text: (Marcovitch, 2005)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Marcovitch, H. (2005). Black’s medical dictionary. London: A and C Black.

Dictionary (without editor)

In-text: (Paperback Oxford English dictionary, 2006)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Paperback Oxford English dictionary (2006). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

DVD

TV series
In-text: (Gavin and Stacey, 2007)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Gavin and Stacey (2007). Complete Series 1. [DVD]. London: BBC DVD.
Film
Either cite the name of the film or the director

In-text: (Lloyd, 2008) OR (Mamma Mia, 2008)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Mamma Mia (2008). [DVD film]. London: Universal Pictures UK.
OR
Lloyd, P. (Director). (2008). Mamma Mia. [DVD film]. London: Universal Pictures UK.

E-book (online)

If page markers are not available on the e-book version you are using cite the chapter for specific references to the source (eg “…” (Schlick, 2010, ch.1)).

In-text: (Schlick, 2010)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Schlick, T. (2010). Molecular modelling and simulation: an interdisciplinary guide. [Online]. Springer. Available at: http://www.springerlink.com/content/p406v4/#section=745673&page=1 [Accessed 5 July 2011].

E-book (reader)

If viewing an e-book using an e-book reader it is important to reference the specific version of the publication for this reader. If page markers are not available on the e-book version you are using cite the chapter for specific references to the source (eg “quote” (Collins, 2011, ch.3)).

In-text: (Collins, 2011)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Collins, S. (2011). The hunger games. [Kindle]. Scholastic Fiction. Available at: http://www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/B005EGXTEE/ref=s9_simh_gw_p351_d2_g351_i4?pf_rd_m=A3P5ROKL5A1OLE&pf_rd_s=center-2&pf_rd_r=0V3C55RJ3DB412MK834J&pf_rd_t=101&pf_rd_p=467128533&pf_rd_i=468294 [Accessed 21 April 2012].

Email

In-text: (Johnson, 2009)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Johnson, I. (2009). Email to A. Lee re. essay tips, 3 June 2009.

Encyclopedia (full)

In-text: (Encyclopedia of consciousness, 2009)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Encyclopedia of consciousness (2009). Vol. 1. London: Elsevier.

Encyclopedia (entry)

In-text: (Brooks, 2004)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Brooks, F. (2004). Our world. In The Usbourne children’s encyclopaedia. London: Usbourne, pp.7-52.

Film

In-text: (Lloyd, 2008) OR (Mamma Mia, 2008)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Mamma Mia (2008). [Film]. London: Universal Pictures UK.
OR
Lloyd, P. (Director). (2008). Mamma Mia. [Film]. London: Universal Pictures UK.

Government publication (command paper, for example white paper or green paper)

In-text: (Great Britain. Defra, 2007)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Great Britain. Defra (2007). Waste strategy for England 2007. Cm. 7086. London: The Stationary Office.
NB: You can omit ‘Great Britain’ if you are only referring to UK central government publications and this will be clear to your reader. If you are referring to publications by devolved government bodies or to international government publications you should state the jurisdictions. The 'Cm. 7086' refers to the reference number given to this particular document. If you can locate the Cm. number you should include it.

Graph/Chart/Table/Figure (print copy)

Give the title for the table/ figure etc and include a full in-text citation
In-text: [INSERT IMAGE] The ‘Soloman four-group’ design (Field and Hole, 2010, p. 79, fig. 3.7)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Field, A. and Hole, G. (2010). How to design and report experiments. London: SAGE.

Graph/Chart/Table/Figure (online)

Give the title for the table/ figure etc and include a full in-text citation
In-text: [INSERT IMAGE] Youths 16-24 claiming, March 2012 rate (The Guardian, 2012).
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Guardian (2012). Youths 16-24 claiming, March 2012 rate. [Online]. The Guardian. Available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/datablog/interactive/2011/nov/16/youth-unemployment-map. [Accessed 21 April 2012].

Interview (conducted by another)

If referring to an interview conducted by someone else that has been published in such as a newspaper or journal you can reference in the following way

In-text: (Beard, 2012)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Beard, M. (2012). A Roman holiday with Cicero (and Mr Hot Sex, too). Interview with M. Reisz. Times Higher Education, 19 April 2012, p.48-49.

Interview (conducted by yourself)

If referring to an interview you have conducted as part of your research you should give a citation, perhaps also signposting the reader to a transcript attached as an appendix, and a full reference. Consideration also needs to be given to confidentiality and interviewee anonymity as appropriate.

In-text: (Smith, 2012)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Smith, J. (2012). Personal interview. Resource evaluation survey for BA dissertation. At University of York, with A. Jones, 2 March 2012 (see appendix 1).

Lecture

In-text: (Jones, 2011).
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Jones, N. (2011). Lecture: The self and how to know it. Know thyself open course.York: University of York, 3 November 2011.

Lecture notes

In-text: (Jones, 2011)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Jones, N. (2011). The self and how to know it. Know thyself open course lecture notes, p.1-3, University of York, Department of Philosophy.

Letter

In-text: (Johnson, 2011)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Johnson, I. (2011). Letter to A. Lee re concerns about employee engagement, 4 June 2011.

Magazine article

In-text: (Clarkson, 2008)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Clarkson, S. (2008). Wanted: 25 hours in the day. Red Magazine, December 2008, 91-94.

Microfiche

Each one will have titles and references within it or you can refer to the actual microfiche record number, where it is stored and when accessed. This is an example of conference proceedings.

In-text: In-text: (AFIPS, 1968)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
AFIPS (1968). American Federation of Information Processing Societies. Conference Proceedings, vol. 33, 1968, Montvale, N.J. [Microfiche] Available J.B. Morrell Library, University of York.

Musical performance (live)

In-text: (Copland, 2012)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Copland, A. (2012). Vitebsk. Sasaki Trio. York: Sir Jack Lyons Concert Hall, 18 January 2012.

Musical score

In-text: (Puccini, 1980)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Puccini, G. (1980). Tosca. Edited by M. Parenti. Milan: Ricardi. (Original work published 1900). 

Newspaper article (with author)

In-text: (Brady and Dutta, 2012)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Brady, B. and Dutta, K. (2012). 45,000 caught cheating at Britain's universities. The Independent on Sunday, 11 March 2012, pp. 4-5.

Newspaper article (no author)

In-text: (The Guardian, 2012)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Guardian (2012). Editorial: French elections. Bitter-sweet victory for the left, 23 April 2012, p. 26.

Newspaper article (online)

In-text: (Laurance, 2013)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Laurance, J. (2013). Liverpool care pathway: a way of death worth fighting for? The Independent. [Online]. 08 January 2013. Available at: http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-families/health-news/liverpool-care-pathway-a-way-of-death-worth-fighting-for-8443348.html [Accessed 14 January 2013].

Online video

In-text: (Cambridgeshire County Council/BBC, 2010)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Cambridgeshire County Council/BBC. (2010). Life as a social worker in Cambridgeshire. [Video]. Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mwp9oUoeJzI [Accessed 5 July 2010].

Painting

In-text: (Monet, 1889)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Monet, C. (1889). The water-lily pond. [Painting]. London: National Gallery.

Pamphlet/booklet

In-text (first mention):(Graduate Students' Association, 2011)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Graduate Students’ Association. (2011). Graduate Guide 2011. York: GSA, University of York.

Parliamentary Bill

In-text:(Finance (No. 4) Bill, 2010-2012)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Finance (No. 4) Bill. HC Bill 2010-2012 [325]. London: The Stationary Office.
NB The HC stands for House of Commons, with HL being used for Bills originating in the House of Lords. The date represents the parliamentary session and the number in [ ] the number of the bill.

Patent

In-text: (Berberet and Bates, 2008)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Berberet, S. and Bates, M. (2008). Fitting for plumbing fixture. US Patent D582022. 2 December 2008.

Photograph

In-text: (Jarche, 1931)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Jarche, J. (1931). Miner with pit pony. [Photograph]. Bradford: National Media Museum.

Play (full performance)

In-text: (Lynn & Jay, 2012)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Lynn, J. & Jay, A. (2012, April 16). Yes, Prime Minister [Play]. Theatre Royal, York. Performers: Graham Seed and Michael Simkins. Director: Jonathan Lynn.

Play (published)

In-text: (Webster, 1998)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Webster, J. (1998). The white devil. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Poem (in an anthology)

In-text: (Bairstow, 1980)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Bairstow, M. (1980). The storm. In R. deV Renwick English folk poetry: structure and meaning. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, p.163.

Podcast

In-text: 
Waters admits in his interview on the WTF podcast (Maron, 2016) that his trip to Lebanon had a significant impact on him...

Works cited/ bibliography:
Maron, M. (2016) "Roger Waters". WTF with Marc Maron. 31 October 2016. Podcast. Available at http://www.wtfpod.com/podcast/episode-755-roger-waters?rq=roger%20waters. [Accessed 10 March 2017.]

Radio programme

In-text: (BBC Radio 4, 2008).
Bibliography/ Reference List:
BBC Radio 4 (2008). A good read. 2 December 2008.

Religious and sacred texts

Neville (2010, p.161) suggests the following process for using religious or sacred works in your writing:

These include the Bible, Talmud, Koran, Upanishads, and major classical works, such as the ancient Greek and Roman works. If you are simply quoting a verse or extract, you do not need to give full reference entries. Instead, you should include the detail in the text of your assignment, for example:

The film script at this point echoes the Bible: ‘And God looked upon the earth, and, behold, it was corrupt; for all flesh had corrupted his way upon the earth’.

(Gen. 6:12) [the in-text citation is for the book of Genesis, chapter 6, verse 12]

However, if you were referring to a particular edition for a significant reasons, it could be listed in full in the main references, eg:

Good News Bible (2004). Rainbow Edition. New York: Harper Collins.

Reports (online)

In-text: (Nursing and Midwifery Council, 2008)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Nursing and Midwifery Council (2008). NMC (Constitution) Order 2008. Nursing and Midwifery Council. [Online]. Available at http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/www.dh.gov.uk/en/Consultations/Liveconsultations/DH_086049 [Accessed 10 March 2017].

Reports (hard copy)

In-text: (Higher Education Academy, 2008)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Higher Education Academy (2008). Ethnicity, gender and degree attainment
project: final report. York: Higher Education Academy/ Equality Challenge Unit.

Republished source

In-text: (Dickens, 1846 [2005], p.29)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Dickens, C. (2005). Oliver Twist. Plymouth: Broadview Press. (Originally published by Bradbury and Evans, 1846).

NB: This format is for when you read a more recent version of an older work. In-text, the date of the original publication is given first, with the later version in [ ], with any page reference to this newer version following. In the bibliography/ reference list you give the date and details of the version you read, with the original publisher and date at the end of the reference.

Review

In-text: (Warner, 2008)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Warner, M. (2008). Travelling text. Review of The Arabian nights: Tales of 1001 nights, translated by M. Lyons. London Review of Books. 30 (24), pp. 15-16.

Secondary referencing

Secondary referencing should be avoided as far as possible and the original source consulted and cited. If it is essential to use a secondary reference follow

In-text: Campell (1976) highlighted…(as cited in Becker, 2007, p.178)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Becker, H. S. (2007). Writing for social scientists: how to start and finish your thesis, book, or article. 2nd edn. London: The University of Chicago Press.

NB Only the source you have actually read is referenced in the bibliography/ reference list

Sound recording (CD, Vinyl, Cassette)

In-text: Belle & Sebastian, 2003, track 8)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Belle and Sebastian (2003). Wrapped up in books. On: Dear catastrophe waitress [CD]. London: Rough Trade Music.

Source material where confidentiality is maintained

In-text:(NHS Trust, 1999) or, for example: “This was in accordance with the NHS Trust's (Name withheld, 1999) disciplinary policy”.
Bibliography/ Reference List:
NHS Trust (Name withheld, 1999). Disciplinary policy.

NB: This should be used where it is important the institution from which the source originates should not be named, in to order protect corporate or individual confidentiality. For example, where a policy, procedure or care plan is being used.

Standard

In-text: (British Standards Institute, 2006)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
BSEN14975 (2006). Loft ladders: requirements, marking and testing. London: British Standards Institute.

Statutory Instrument

In-text: (Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1988)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1988, SI 1988/1657.

Telephone conversation

In-text: (Johnson, 2012)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Johnson, I. (2012). Telephone conversation with the author, 4 January 2012.

Text message

In-text: (Johnson, 2007)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Johnson, I. (2007). Text message to A. Lee, 4 July 2007.

Thesis

In-text: (Chen, 2011)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Chen, C. I. (2011). Impacts of climate warming on range shifts with emphasis on tropical mountains. Unpublished: University of York. PhD.

TV Programme

In-text: (Panorama: Britain's Crimes of Honour, 2012)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Panorama. (2012). Britain’s crimes of honour. BBC1, 19 March 2012.

Twitter/Tweets

Use either the proper name of the author or Twitter pseudonym. In the following example either (Trump, 2012) or (@realDonaldTrump, 2012) can be used in-text and in the Bibliography/ Reference List reference.

 

In-text:
Trump (2012) went as far as to claim that the Chinese invented climate change in a tweet in 2012.


Works cited/ bibliography:
@realDonaldTrump (2012) "The concept of global warming was created by and for the Chinese in order to make manufacturing non-competitive." Twitter, 6 Nov 2012.Available at https://twitter.com/realdonaldtrump/status/265895292191248385?lang=en-gb [Accessed 10 March 2017].

or

Trump, D. (2012) "The concept of global warming was created by and for the Chinese in order to make manufacturing non-competitive." Twitter, 6 Nov 2012. Available at https://twitter.com/realdonaldtrump/status/265895292191248385?lang=en-gb [Accessed 10 March 2017].

 

VLE

In-text: (ELDT, 2012)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
ELDT (2012). Help Guide: Blogs in Yorkshare: an overview. University of York [Online]. Available at https://vle.york.ac.uk/bbcswebdav/institution/E-Learning/Development/Team/Guides/Bb/Blog/--/Overview.html [Accessed 19 April 2012].

Website with author

In-text: (Peston, 2012)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Peston, R. (2012). Can Tesco grow again in Britain? [Online]. BBC News. Last updated: 18 April 2012. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-17748586 [Accessed 10 March 2017].

Website with no author

In-text: (St John Ambulance, 2011)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
St John Ambulance (2011). The difference first aid makes. [Online]. St John Ambulance, UK. Available at: http://www.sja.org.uk/sja/support-us/the-difference.aspx [Accessed 10 March 2017].

Wiki

In-text: (Appropedia, 2011)
Bibliography/ Reference List:
Appropedia (2011). Water and sanitation for developing countries. Available at http://www.appropedia.org/Category:Water_and_sanitation_for_developing_countries [Accessed 10 March 2017].