An A to Z of further  Chicago example citations and references

Act of Parliament

Enacted pre-1963 – including the regnal-year (year of the monarch’s reign)

Footnote
1. The Poor Relief Act, 1601, 43 Eliz. 1, c. 2.
2. The Poor Relief Act, 1601.
Enacted post-1963

1. Social Security Act, 1998, c. 14 (UK): para. 2.1(a).
2. Social Security Act, 1998, 3.1.
Reference list/ bibliography:
When included in full in a footnote the first time the legislation is cited, no additional reference
  entry is required.

NB: The ‘c. 2’/ ‘c. 14’ refers to the chapter, the number of the Act according to those passed during the year of the monarch’s reign/ parliamentary session. If it might be unclear as to which jurisdiction the legislation applies, this can be given in ( ).

Atlas

Footnote:
1. Master Atlas of Greater London, 11th ed. (Sevenoaks: Geographer's A-Z Map Company, 2007), 2.
2. Master Atlas, 3.
Reference list/ bibliography:
Master Atlas of Greater London. 11th ed. Sevenoaks: Geographer's A-Z Map Company, 2007.

Blog

Footnote:
1. Stephen Fry, "Supporting Pussy Riot," The New Adventures of Stephen Fry (blog), Aug 22, 2012, accessed Aug 6, 2013, http://www.stephenfry.com/2012/08/22/supporting-pussy-riot/.
2. Fry, "Supporting Pussy Riot".
Reference list/ bibliography:
Fry, Stephen. “Supporting Pussy Riot”. The New Adventures of Stephen Fry (blog) Aug 22, 2012.
   *Accessed Aug 6, 2013. http://www.stephenfry.com/2012/08/22/supporting-pussy-riot/.

Book illustration

Use this format if including illustrations, for example in writing about children’s literature

Illustration caption (below image):
Mr Toad driving away in the stolen car. Illustrated by Martin Aitchison, in The Wind in the Willows by Kenneth Grahame, retold by Joan Collins (Loughborough: Ladybird, 1983), 12.

Reference list/ bibliography:
Grahame, Kenneth. The Wind in the Willows. Retold by, Joan Collins. Loughborough: Ladybird,
   1983.

Book (translated from another language)

If you are reading an English language version of a book originally published in another language follow this example

Footnote:
1. H. K. F. van Nierop, The Nobility of Holland: From Knights to Regents, 1500-1650, trans. Maarten Ultee (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 24.
2. Van Nierop, Nobility of Holland, 33.

Reference list/ bibliography:
van Nierop, H. K. F. The Nobility of Holland: From Knights to Regents, 1500-1650. Translated by
   Maarten Ultee. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

NB: ‘Trans.’ is used in the footnote, but ‘translated by’ is used in the reference.

Book in another language

Follow this example if you want to refer to a book you read in another language

Footnote:
1. Jacques Le Goff and Pierre Nora, Faire de l’Histoire: Nouveaux Problèmes [Constructing History] (France: Gallimard, 1974), 5.
2. Le Goff and Nora, Faire de l’Histoire, 6.

Reference list/ bibliography:
Le Goff, Jacques, and Nora Pierre. Faire de l’Histoire: Nouveaux Problèmes [Constructing History].
  France: Gallimard, 1974.

NB: If shortening the title of a non-English work, care must be taken not to omit words that govern the case ending of a word in the shortened title.

Computer application/program/software

If a named author is given use this at the start of the footnote/ reference and, otherwise use the name of the program.

Footnote:
1. Snagit, version. 9.1 (Okemos, MI: TechSmith, 2009), computer software.
2. Snagit.

Reference list/ bibliography:
Snagit. Version. 9.1. Okemos, MI: TechSmith, 2009. Computer software.

Conference proceedings (full)

Footnote:
1. Sabrina J. Billings, John P. Boyle, and Aaron M. Griffith, ed., CLS 35 Part 1: Papers from the Main Session (Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society, 1999).
2. Billings, Boyle, and Griffith, CLS 35.

Reference list/ bibliography:
Billings, Sabrina J., John P. Boyle, and Aaron M. Griffith, ed. CLS 35 Part 1: Papers from the Main
   Session. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society, 1999.

Conference paper (unpublished)

Footnote:
1. Amy Burge. "A Very English Place: The Intimate Relationship Between Britain and Arabia in the Contemporary Sheikh Romance," (conference paper, EUPOP 2012: Inaugural Conference of the European Popular Culture Association, University of the Arts, London, July 11-13, 2012).
2. Burge, "Very English Place".

Reference list/ bibliography:
Burge, Amy. "A Very English Place: The Intimate Relationship Between Britain and Arabia
   in the Contemporary Sheikh Romance." Paper presented at EUPOP 2012: Inaugural
   Conference of the European Popular Culture Association. University of the Arts,
   London. July 11-13, 2012.

Dance

Footnote:
1. A Midsummer’s Night Dream, choreographed by David Nixon, Northern Ballet, West Yorkshire Playhouse, Leeds. Sep 6, 2013.
2. A Midsummer’s Night Dream.

Reference list/ bibliography:
A Midsummer’s Night Dream. Choreographed by David Nixon. Northern Ballet. West Yorkshire
   Playhouse, Leeds. Sep 6, 2013.

Database Online (specific content)

Footnote:
1. Anne Jane Walker Shepperd, Diary of Anne Jane Walker Shepperd, August 1940, (Alexandria, VA: Alexander Street Press, 2004), 1. British and Irish Women’s Letters and Diaries 1500 to 1950, accessed June 6, 2013. http://solomon.bwld.alexanderstreet.com/cgi-bin/asp/philo/bwld/getdoc.pl?S1
2403-D001.
2. Shepperd, Diary, 2.

Reference list/ bibliography:
Shepperd, Anne Jane Walker. Diary of Anne Jane Walker Shepperd, August 1940. Alexandria, VA:
   Alexander Street Press, 2004. British and Irish Women’s Letters and Diaries 1500 to 1950.
   Accessed June 6, 2013. http://solomon.bwld.alexanderstreet.com/cgi-bin/asp/philo/bwld/
   getdoc.pl?S12403-D001. 

NB: The first footnote records the page cited after the ( ). In this example, it would also be appropriate to make reference in the text to specific details cited, for example, the date of the diary entry or paragraph number as presented in the online version.

Database Online (not referring to specific content)

Footnote:
1.Eighteenth Century Collections Online, accessed June 5, 2013, http://gale.cengage.co.uk/product-highlights/history/eighteenth-century-collections-online.aspx.
2. Eighteenth Century Collections Online.

Reference list/ bibliography:
Eighteenth Century Collections Online. Accessed June 5, 2013. http://gale.cengage.co.uk/
   product-highlights/history/eighteenth-century-collections-online.aspx.

Diary

Footnote:
1. Thomas Larkham, The Diary of Thomas Larkham, 1647-1669, ed. Susan Hardman Moore (Woodbridge: Boydell, 2011), 13.
2. Larkham, Diary, 14.

Reference list/ bibliography:
Larkham, Thomas. The Diary of Thomas Larkham, 1647-1669. Edited by Susan Hardman Moore.
   Woodbridge: Boydell, 2011.

Dictionary (with editor)

Footnote:
1. The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy ed. Simon Blackburn (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), s.v. "norm".
2. Dictionary of Philosophy, s.v. "aesthetics".

Reference list/ bibliography:
The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy. Edited by Simon Blackburn. Oxford: Oxford University Press,
   1996.

NB: For reference works such as the above example, ‘s.v.’ means sub verbo, ‘under the word’, and is placed before the word or entry cited.

DVD

Footnote:
1. Jonathan Harvey, "How I got my Nose," Beautiful People, series 1, episode 2, directed by Gareth Carrivick (London: BBC Worldwide, 2008), DVD.
2. Harvey, "How I got my Nose".

Reference list/ bibliography:
Harvey, Jonathan. "How I got my Nose." Beautiful People, series 1, episode 2. Directed by Gareth
   Carrivick. London: BBC Worldwide, 2008. DVD.

NB: Jonathan Harvey is listed first as the writer. If unknown, start with the title of the work.

E-book (online)

If page markers are not available on the e-book version you are using cite the chapter for specific references to the source.

Footnote:
1. Jessica N. Berry, Nietzsche and the Ancient Skeptical Tradition (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), ch.3, accessed June 5, 2013, http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195368420.001.0001/acprof-9780195368420.
2. Berry, Nietzsche, chap. 5.

Reference list/ bibliography:
Berry, Jessica N. Nietzsche and the Ancient Skeptical Tradition. Oxford: Oxford University Press,
   2011. Accessed June 5, 2013. http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/
   9780195368420.001.0001/acprof-9780195368420.

E-book (reader)

If viewing an e-book using an e-book reader it is important to reference the specific version of the publication for this reader. If page markers are not available on the e-book version you are using cite the chapter for specific references to the source.

Footnote:
1. Suzanne Collins, The Hunger Games (New York: Scholastic Fiction, 2011), Kindle edition, chap. 6.
2. Collins, The Hunger Games, chap. 7.

Reference list/ bibliography:
Collins, Suzanne. The Hunger Games. New York: Scholastic Fiction, 2011. Kindle edition.

Email

Personal communications do not need to be included in the reference list/ bibliography, but should be clearly cited in the text, either in the sentence or by including a footnote.

In-text:
In an email to the author dated June 3, 2013, Irene Johnson suggested…
OR
Footnote: 1. Irene Johnson, email message to the author, June 3, 2013.

Encyclopedia (full)

Footnote:
1. William P. Banks, ed. Encyclopedia of Consciousness. 2 vols. (London: Elsevier, 2009).
2. Banks, Encyclopedia of Consciousness.

Reference list/ bibliography:
Banks, William P., ed. Encyclopedia of Consciousness. 2 vols. London: Elsevier, 2009.

Encyclopedia (entry)

Footnote:
1. John Cannon, R. H. C. Davis, William Doyle, and Jack P. Greene, ed., The Blackwell Dictionary of Historians (Oxford: Blackwell, 1988), s.v. "Ariès, Philippe".

Reference list/ bibliography:
Cannon, John, R. H. C. Davis, William Doyle, and Jack P. Greene, ed. The Blackwell Dictionary of
   Historians. Oxford: Blackwell, 1988.

NB: ‘s.v.’ means sub verbo, ‘under the word’, and is placed before the word or entry cited

Film

Footnote:
1. The Boy in the Striped Pyjamas, directed by Mark Herman (Miramax Films, 2008), film.
2. The Boy in the Striped Pyjamas.

Reference list/ bibliography:
The Boy in the Striped Pyjamas. Directed by Mark Herman. Miramax Films, 2008. Film.

Government publication (command paper, for example white paper or green paper)

Footnote:
1. Department for Education, What is the Research Evidence on Writing? DFE-RR238, 2012, 4.
2. Department for Education, Evidence on Writing, 8.

Reference list/ bibliography:
Department for Education. What is the Research Evidence on Writing? DFE-RR238, 2012.

Graph/Chart/Table/Figure (print copy)

Footnote: [INSERT FIGURE/ TABLE]
Caption:
Table 1. Birth intervals among twenty-one selected families of Holland nobles. Source: H. K. F. van Nierop, The Nobility of Holland: From Knights to Regents, 1500-1650, trans. Maarten Ultee (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 61.

Reference list/ bibliography:
van Nierop, H. K. F. The Nobility of Holland: From Knights to Regents, 1500-1650. Translated by
   Maarten Ultee. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Graph/Chart/Table/Figure (online)

Footnote: [INSERT TABLE/ FIGURE]
Caption:
Fig. 1. Word count by genre. "Shakespeare Text Statistics," OpenSource Shakespeare, George Mason University, 2013, accessed June 5, 2013, http://www.opensourceshakespeare.org/stats/.

Reference list/ bibliography:
OpenSource Shakespeare. "Shakespeare Text Statistics." OpenSource Shakespeare. George Mason
   University, 2013. Accessed June 5, 2013. http://www.opensourceshakespeare.org/stats/.

Interview (conducted by another)

If referring to an interview conducted by someone else that has been published in such as a newspaper or journal you can reference in the following way.

Footnote:
1. Mary Beard, interviewed by Matthew Reisz, "A Roman Holiday with Cicero (and Mr Hot Sex, too)," Times Higher Education, Apr 19, 2012, 48.
2. Beard, interview, 49.

Reference list/ bibliography:
Beard, Mary. "A Roman Holiday with Cicero (and Mr Hot Sex, too)." Interview by Matthew Reisz.
    Times Higher Education. Apr 19, 2012, 48-49.

Lecture

Footnote:
1. Nick Jones, "The Self and how to Know it," (lecture, Know Thyself Open Course, University of York, York, Nov 3, 2011).
2. Jones, "The Self", lecture.

Reference list/ bibliography:
Jones, Nick. "The Self and how to Know it." Lecture for Know Thyself Open Course University of
   York, York, Nov 3, 2011.

Lecture notes

Footnote:
1. Nick Jones, "The Self and how to Know it". Know Thyself Open Course, lecture notes (York: University of York, 2011), 1.
2. Jones, "The Self", lecture notes, 2.

Reference list/ bibliography:
Jones, Nick. "The Self and how to Know it". Know Thyself Open Course. Lecture notes. York:
   University of York, 2011. 1-3.

Letter

Personal communications do not need to be included in the reference list/ bibliography, but should be clearly cited in the text, either in the sentence or by including a footnote.


In-text:
In a letter to the author dated June 3, 2013, Irene Johnson suggested…
OR
Footnote: 1. Irene Johnson, letter to the author, June 3, 2013.

Magazine article

Footnote:
1. Peter Hessler, "Letter from Cairo: The Showdown," New Yorker, July 22, 2013, 27.
2. Hessler, "Letter from Cairo," 29.

Reference list/ bibliography:
Hessler, Peter. "Letter from Cairo: The Showdown." New Yorker. July 22, 2013, 26-32.

NB: Articles such as ‘the’ are removed from the footnote and reference for magazine titles.

Manuscript (single item in collection)

Footnote:
1. Vogt to von Bohlen, 30 May 1925, Familienarchive Hügel (FAH) 4E 266, fol. 241, Historisches Archiv Krupp.
(Subsequent use of the same item)
2. Vogt to von Bohlen, Historisches Archiv.

Reference list/ bibliography:
Vogt to von Bohlen, 30 May 1925. Familienarchiv Hügel. Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach-
   Stiftung, Historisches Archiv Krupp, Duisburg.

NB: If citing just one item from a collection, include a footnote and reference, as in the example above. The reference begins with the item.

Manuscript (multiple items from a collection)

Footnote:
1. Vogt to von Bohlen, 30 May 1925, Familienarchive Hügel (FAH) 4E 266, fol. 241, Historisches Archiv Krupp.
2. Schmidt to von Bohlen, 2 June 1935, Familienarchive Hügel (FAH) 4E 266, fol. 245.

Reference list/ bibliography:
Familienarchiv Hügel. Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach-Stiftung, Historisches Archiv Krupp,
   Duisburg.

NB: If citing a number of items from a collection, include a full footnote for the first item. A shortened footnote can be used for subsequent items from the same collection. The reference begins with, and contains, details of the collection only.

If an older manuscript is numbered by signatures or by folios (fol. or fols.), these should be used in place of page numbers. If you use page numbers, the abbreviations p. and pp. should be used to avoid ambiguity. If a manuscript collection has identifying series or file numbers, these may be included in a citation.

Microfiche

You should cite a publication viewed in microform as per the type of source (book, newspaper, etc.) or you can refer to the actual microfiche record number and where it is stored. This is an example of a historical periodical.

Footnote: 
1. J. Brown, Freemason’s Magazine (London: J. W. Bunney, 1794), microform, The Eighteenth Century, reel 16298, Raymond Burton Library, University of York, York, 2.
2. Brown, Freemason’s Magazine, 4.

Reference list/ bibliography:
Brown, J. Freemason’s Magazine. London: J. W. Bunney, 1794. Microform. The Eighteenth
   Century. Reel 16298. Raymond Burton Library, University of York, York.

Musical performance (live)

Footnote:
1. Vitebsk, by Aaron Copland, performed by Sasaki Trio, Sir Jack Lyons Concert Hall, York. Jan 18, 2012.
2. Vitebsk.

Reference list/ bibliography:
Vitebsk. By Aaron Copland. Performed by Sasaki Trio. Sir Jack Lyons Concert Hall, York. Jan 18, 2012.

Musical score

Footnote:
1. Giacomo Puccini, Tosca (Milan: Ricardi, 1980).
2. Puccini, Tosca.

Reference list/ bibliography:
Puccini, Giacomo. Tosca. Milan: Ricardi, 1980.

Newspaper article (with author)

Footnote:
1. Brian Brady and Kunal Dutta, "45,000 Caught Cheating at Britain's Universities," Independent on Sunday, Mar 11, 2012, 4.
2. Brady and Dutta, "45,000 Caught Cheating", 5.

Reference list/ bibliography:
Brady, Brian and Kunal Dutta. "45,000 Caught Cheating at Britain's Universities." Independent on
  Sunday. Mar 11, 2012, 4-5.

NB: Articles such as ‘the’ are removed from the footnote and reference for newspaper titles. Where a newspaper’s location might be important to include, this can be given in ( ) after the name, for example Morning Herald (London).

Newspaper article (no author)

For a source without an author it is acceptable to use the title, or a shortened version of it, in the in-text citation.

Footnote:
1. "French Elections. Bitter-Sweet Victory for the Left," editorial, Guardian Apr 23, 2012, 26.
2. "French Elections," 26.

Reference list/ bibliography:
Guardian. "French Elections. Bitter-Sweet Victory for the Left." Editorial. Apr 23, 2012, 26.

Online video

Footnote:
1. Shepherd Group, "The Construction of the University of York," YouTube video, 18:22, posted by "universityofyorkuk," Mar 11, 2013, accessed June 7, 2013, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vAfb7XZonrY.
2. Shepherd Group.

Reference list/ bibliography:
Shepherd Group. "The Construction of the University of York." YouTube video, 18:22. Posted by
   "universityofyorkuk." Mar 11, 2013. Accessed June 7, 2013.
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vAfb7XZonrY.

Painting or Visual Work

Footnote:
1. Claude Monet, "The Water-Lily Pond," (jpeg image of painting, National Gallery, London, 1889).
2. Monet, "The Water-Lily Pond".

Reference list/ bibliography:
Monet, Claude. "The Water-Lily Pond." jpeg image of painting. National Gallery, London, 1889.

Pamphlet/booklet

Footnote:
1. Graduate Students' Association, Graduate Guide 2013 (York: Graduate Students' Association, University of York, 2013), 5.
2. Graduate Students' Association, Graduate Guide 2013, 7.

Reference list/ bibliography:
Graduate Students' Association. Graduate Guide 2013. York: Graduate Students' Association,
   University of York, 2013.

Parliamentary Bill

Footnote:
1. Energy Bill (H.L.), 2013-14, 48: para. 5(4).
2. Energy Bill, para. 9(1).

Reference list/ bibliography:
When included in full in a footnote the first time the legislation is cited, no additional reference
   entry is required.

NB: The (H.L.) stands for House of Lords, for a Bill originating there. House of Commons Bills are denoted by (H.C.). The date represents the parliamentary session and the number is the number of the Bill.

Titles of Bills are not italicised in text or in the footnote.

Patent

Footnote:
1. S. Berberet and M. Bates, fitting for plumbing fixture, US Patent D582022. Dec 2, 2008.
2. Berberet and Bates.

Reference list/ bibliography:
Berberet, S., and M. Bates. Fitting for plumbing fixture. US Patent D582022. 2 Dec. 2008.

Performance Programme

To cite and reference the programme for a performance such as a play, dance or concert, use the following example:

Footnote:
1. Nikolai Foster, "A Beautiful Re-discovery," theatre programme, Beautiful Thing, n. pag., Leeds: West Yorkshire Playhouse, June 3-8, 2013.

Reference list/ bibliography:
Foster, Nikolai. "A Beautiful Re-discovery." Theatre programme. Beautiful Thing. n. pag. Leeds:
   West Yorkshire Playhouse. June 3-8, 2013.  

NB: The reference is for an authored contribution within the overall performance programme. ‘n. pag.’ in this example denotes no pagination, that is, page numbering.

Photograph

Footnote:
1. J. Jarche, "Miner with Pit Pony," (photograph, National Media Museum, Bradford, 1931).
2. Jarche, "Miner with Pit Pony".

Reference list/ bibliography:
Jarche, J. "Miner with Pit Pony." Photograph. National Media Museum, Bradford, 1931.

Play performance

Footnote:
1. Yes, Prime Minister, by Jonathan Lynn, directed by Jonathan Lynn, Theatre Royal, York. Apr 16, 2012.
2. Yes, Prime Minister.

Reference list/ bibliography:
Yes, Prime Minister. By Jonathan Lynn. Directed by Jonathan Lynn. Theatre Royal, York. Apr 16,
   2012.

Play (published)

If you are citing from a prose play, give the page number(s) for the quotation.

If you are citing from a verse play, give the act, scene and line(s) quoted and separated by a full stop.
Prose play footnote:
1. Samuel Beckett, Happy Days (London: Faber and Faber, 1961), 27.

Verse play footnote: 
2. William Shakespeare, Othello, ed. Jane Coles (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1992), 1.3.390-93.

Reference list/ bibliography:
Beckett, Samuel. Happy Days. London: Faber and Faber, 1961.
Shakespeare, William. Othello. Edited by Jane Coles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
   1992.

Poem (in an anthology)

Footnote:
1. M. Bairstow, "The Storm," English Folk Poetry: Structure and Meaning, ed. Roger deV Renwick (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1980), 163, lines 3-4.
2. Bairstow, "The Storm," lines 5-6.

Reference list/ bibliography:
Bairstow, M. "The Storm." English Folk Poetry: Structure and Meaning, edited by Roger de
    Renwick, 163. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1980.

Podcast

Footnote:
1. Chris Moyles, "Tulisa Stands in for Dave," BBC Radio 1: Best of Chris Moyles, podcast audio, Apr 6, 2012, accessed Apr 19, 2012, http://downloads.bbc.co.uk/podcasts/radio1/moyles/moyles_20120406-0130a.mp3.

Reference list/ bibliography:
Moyles, Chris. "Tulisa Stands in for Dave." BBC Radio 1: Best of Chris Moyles. Podcast audio. Apr 6,
   2012. Accessed Apr 19, 2012. http://downloads.bbc.co.uk/podcasts/radio1/moyles/
    moyles_20120406-0130a.mp3

Radio programme

Footnote:
1. Jane Garvey, "Jane Austen Exhibition," Woman’s Hour, aired Apr 12, 2010 (London: BBC Radio 4, 2010), radio broadcast.
2. Garvey, "Jane Austen Exhibition."
Reference list/ bibliography:
Garvey, Jane. "Jane Austen Exhibition." Woman’s Hour. Aired Apr 12, 2010. London: BBC Radio 4,
   2010. Radio broadcast.

Religious and sacred texts

These include the Bible, Talmud, Koran, Upanishads, and major classical works, such as the ancient Greek and Roman works. If you are quoting a verse or extract, you should include the detail in the text of the edition of the work you are using the first time you cite from it, with the book, and specific details. It is acceptable to use standard abbreviations for works, such as books of the Bible. It is not necessary to include a reference in your reference list/ bibliography for sacred works.

Footnote:
1. 1 Corinthians 5:2-3 (Good News Bible).
2. 1 Cor. 6:1-5.

NB: The first footnote is for the book 1 Corinthians, chapter 5, verses 2-3.

Reports (online)

Footnote:
1. NIACE, Work, Society and Lifelong Literacy: Report of the Inquiry into Adult Literacy in England (Leicester: NIACE, 2011), 6, accessed Aug 7, 2013. http://www.niace.org.uk/sites/default/files/documents/publications/Literacy%20Inquiry%20-%20Full%20report-WEB.pdf.
2. NIACE, Work, Society and Lifelong Literacy, 8.

Reference list/ bibliography:
NIACE. Work, Society and Lifelong Literacy: Report of the Inquiry into Adult
   Literacy in England. Leicester: NIACE, 2011. Accessed Aug 7, 2013.
   http://www.niace.org.uk/sites/default/files/documents/publications/
   Literacy%20Inquiry%20-%20Full%20report-WEB.pdf.

Reports (hard copy)

Footnote:
1. Higher Education Academy, Ethnicity, Gender and Degree Attainment Project: Final Report (York: Higher Education Academy/ Equality Challenge Unit, 2008), 12.
2. Higher Education Academy, Ethnicity, 15.

Reference list/ bibliography:
Higher Education Academy. Ethnicity, Gender and Degree Attainment Project:Final Report. York:
   Higher Education Academy/ Equality Challenge Unit, 2008.

Republished source

Footnote:
1. Charles Dickens, Oliver Twist (London: Bradbury and Evans, 1846; Plymouth: Broadview Press, 2005), 24. Citations refer to the Broadview Press edition.
2. Dickens, Oliver Twist, 34.

Reference list/ bibliography:
Dickens, Charles. Oliver Twist. Plymouth: Broadview Press, 2005. First published 1846 by
   Bradbury and Evans.

NB: This format is for when you read a more recent version of an older work, or a paperback version of a previously published hardback. In the reference list/ bibliography you give the information for the edition you are citing followed by the original publication details.

Review

Footnote:
1. M. Warner, "Travelling Text," review of The Arabian Nights: Tales of 1001 Nights, trans. Malcolm, C. Lyons, London Review of Books 30.24 (2008): 15.
2. Warner, "Travelling Text," 16.

Reference list/ bibliography:
Warner, M. "Travelling Text". Review of The Arabian Nights: Tales of 1001 Nights. Translated by
   Malcolm, C. Lyons. London Review of Books 30.24 (2008): 15-16.

Secondary referencing

Secondary referencing should be avoided as far as possible and the original source consulted and cited. If it is essential to use a secondary reference follow:

Footnote:
1. Colleer Abbott, The Life and Letters of George Darley, Poet and Critic, 2nd ed. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1967): 59, quoted in Paul Chirico, John Clare and the Imagination of the Reader (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007), 47.

Reference list/ bibliography:
Abbott, Colleer. The Life and Letters of George Darley, Poet and Critic, 2nd ed. Oxford: Clarendon
   Press, 1967.
Chirico, Paul. John Clare and the Imagination of the Reader. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan,
   2007.

NB: The Department of English ask that both the secondary source and the source in which you read about it are included in the footnote and reference list.

The Department of History ask that the footnote includes details of both sources, but that only the source read is included in the reference list.

Sound recording (CD, Vinyl, Cassette)

Footnote:
1. Belle and Sebastian, "Wrapped up in Books," Dear Catastrophe Waitress, Rough Trade, 2003, CD.
2. Belle and Sebastian, "Wrapped up in Books."

Reference list/ bibliography:
Belle and Sebastian. "Wrapped up in Books." Dear Catastrophe Waitress. Rough Trade, 2003. CD.

Standard

Footnote:
1. Recommendations for Citation of Unpublished Documents, BS 6371:1983 (London: BSI, 1983).
2. Recommendations for Citation, BS 6371:1983.

Reference list/ bibliography:
Recommendations for Citation of Unpublished Documents. BS 6371:1983. London: BS, 1983.

Telephone conversation

Personal communications do not need to be included in the reference list/ bibliography, but should be clearly cited in the text, either in the sentence or by including a footnote.
In-text:
In a telephone conversation with the author on June 3, 2013, Irene Johnson suggested…
OR
Footnote: 1. Irene Johnson, telephone conversation with the author, June 3, 2013.

Text message

Personal communications do not need to be included in the reference list/ bibliography, but should be clearly cited in the text, either in the sentence or by including a footnote.
In-text:
In a text message to the author dated June 3, 2013, Irene Johnson suggested…
OR
Footnote:
1. Irene Johnson, text message to the author, June 3, 2013.

Thesis

Footnote: 
1. L.E. Rice, "Medieval Mysteries in the Modern World: Contemporary Stagings of the York Mystery Plays," (masters dissertation, University of York, 2008), 30.
2. Rice, "Medieval Mysteries," 35.

Reference list/ bibliography:
Rice, L.E. "Medieval Mysteries in the Modern World: Contemporary Stagings of the York Mystery
   Plays." Masters dissertation. University of York, 2008.

TV Programme

Footnote:
1. "Britain’s Crimes of Honour," Panorama, BBC1, Mar 19, 2012, television broadcast.
2. "Britain’s Crimes of Honour."

Reference list/ bibliography:
"Britain’s Crimes of Honour." Panorama. BBC1. Mar 19, 2012. Television broadcast.
NB: The title of the episode is given in quotation marks and the programme title in italics.

Twitter/Tweets

Use either the proper name of the author where known and the pseudonym in (). If not known, just use the Twitter pseudonym. In-text, include the tweet in full in quotation marks, with other details to contextualise the tweet. In the footnote and reference list/ bibliography, just key information is then required.

In-text:
The University of York Library (@UoYLibrary) boasted in a tweet that "Britain's largest Cathedral library is here in York (and you can borrow books for free). More info on their Facebook http://bit.ly/I5pYta"…

Footnote:
1. University of York Library (@UoYLibrary), tweet, Apr 18, 2012, 2:16a.m., accessed June 10, 2013, http://twitter.com/#!/UoYLibrary/.

Reference list/ bibliography:
University of York Library (@UoYLibrary). Tweet. Apr 18, 2012, 2:16a.m. Accessed June 10, 2013.
   http://twitter.com/#!/UoYLibrary/.

VLE

Footnote:
1. "Blogs in Yorkshare: An Overview," ELDT, University of York, n.d., accessed Apr 19, 2012, https://vle.york.ac.uk/bbcswebdav/institution/E-Learning%20Development%20Team/Guides/
Bb%20Blog%20--%20Overview.html.
2. "Blogs in Yorkshare".

Reference list/ bibliography:
ELDT. "Blogs in Yorkshare: An Overview." ELDT, University of York, n.d. Accessed Apr 19, 2012.
   https://vle.york.ac.uk/bbcswebdav/institution/E-Learning%20Development%20 Team/
   Guides/Bb%20Blog%20--%20Overview.html.

NB: ‘n.d.’ denotes that the particular page is undated

Website with author

Footnote:
1. Stephen Fry, "A London Secret Shared," The New Adventures of Stephen Fry, Dec 5, 2011, accessed Aug 8, 2013, http://www.stephenfry.com/2011/12/05/londonlibrary/.
2. Fry, "A London Secret Shared."

Reference list/ bibliography:
Fry, Stephen. "A London Secret Shared." The New Adventures of Stephen Fry. Dec 5, 2011.
   Accessed Aug 8, 2013.http://www.stephenfry.com/2011/12/05/londonlibrary/

NB: This individual page is given in quotation marks and the overall website in italics.

Website with no author

Footnote:
1. "Distance Learners," The Writing Centre, University of York, Apr 12, 2013, accessed June 17, 2013, https://www.york.ac.uk/students/studying/develop-your-skills/study-skills/writing/distancelearners/.
2. "Distance Learners."

Reference list/ bibliography:
University of York. "Distance Learners." The Writing Centre. University of York. Apr 12, 2013.
  Accessed June 17, 2013. https://www.york.ac.uk/students/ studying/develop-your-skills
  /study-skills/writing/distancelearners/.

Wiki

Footnote:
1. Pynchon Wiki, s.v. "Against the Day," Dec 1, 2010, accessed June 17, 2013, http://against-the-day.pynchonwiki.com/wiki/index.php?title=Main_Page.
2. Pynchon Wiki. s.v. "Against the Day."

Reference list/ bibliography:
Pynchon Wiki, s.v. "Against the Day." Dec 1, 2010. Accessed June 17, 2013.
   http://against-the-day.pynchonwiki.com/wiki/index.php?title=Main_Page.