Paul O'Higgins

Profile

Biography

Current Position

Foundation Professor of Anatomy, Hull York Medical School. 

Head, HYMS Centre for Anatomical and Human Sciences 

Previous positions

October 1983: Demonstrator in Anatomy, University of Leeds

October 1984 - January 1990: Lecturer,  Department of Anatomy, University of Leeds

January 1990-June 1994: Lecturer then (1992) Senior  Lecturer, Department of Anatomy and Human Biology, The University of Western Australia 

September 1994 –Jan 2003: Reader then Professor in Anatomy, Department of Anatomy  and Developmental Biology, University College London

 

Research

Overview

Paul's Research concerns the links between skeletal form and function. The particular focus of this is in primates.  His work uses and develops moprhometric and functional simulation approaches to understanding how skeletal form varies and the links between Form and Function.

Key underpinning technologies include CT imaging, Geometric morphometrics and Finite Elements Analysis 

Details are to be found at the main Centre for Anatomical and Human Sciences (CAHS) web pages:

http://sites.google.com/site/hymsfme/ 

Projects

Skeletal morphology of primates and other mammals

Morphometric and functional studies of living humans

Grants

Recent

2006-2010 Marie Curie Research Training Network - European Virtual Anthropology - ‘EVAN’

2006-2010 Marie Curie Early Stage Training Network - Human Palaeoecology and Evolutionary Origins -‘PALAEO’.

2006-2009 Arts and Humanties Research Council - The prehistoric origins of Orcadian cultural exchange networks: biomolecular and morphometric studies of Orkney voles. Dobney K, Searle J,d O’Higgins P

2007-2010 Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC). Skull architecture and the conquest of the land: an investigation of tetrapod skulls using advanced computer modelling techniques. Evans SE, Fagan MJ, O’Higgins P

2007-2010 Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC). Mechanical function of the primate craniofacial skeleton. O’Higgins P, Fagan MJ, Phillips R.                                 

Current

2010-2013 Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC). An investigation of lizard skull kinesis using advanced computer modelling Fagan MJ, Evans SE and O’Higgins P.           

2010-2013 Australian Research Council Novel approaches to the identification of Human Remains: integration of studies of bone form and chemistry. Franklin D, Oxnard CE, Dadour I, O’Higgins P,  Cardini A, Hoogewerff J, Green, Marks M. 

2011-2013 Royal Society International Joint Project. Genetic, ecological, functional and historical factors shaping the human skull. O’Higgins P. and Evteev A.          

                                                                                                                     

Publications

Selected publications

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Full publications list

Recent publications

Liu J, Shi L, Fitton L C, Philips R, O’Higgins, P, Fagan M (2012) The application of muscle wrapping to voxel-based finite element models of skeletal structures, Biomech Model Mechanobiol, 11, 35-47.

Franklin D, Flavel A, Kuliukas A, Cardini A, Marks M K, Oxnard C, O’Higgins, P (2012) Estimation of sex from sterna measurements in a Western Australian population, Forensic Science International, 217, 230.e1 – 230.

Groening F, Bright J A, Fagan M J, O’Higgins P (2012) Improving the validation of finite element models with quantitative full-field strain comparisons. Journal of Biomechanics, 45: 1498-1506

Shi J, Curtis N, Fitton L C, O’Higgins P &Fagan M J (2012) Developing a musculoskeletal model of the primate skull: predicting muscle activations, bite force and joint reaction forces using multibody dynamics analysis and advanced optimisation methods, Journal of Theoretical Biology, 310: 21-30

Fitton LC, Shi JF, Fagan MJ, O’Higgins P. (2012). Masticatory loadings and cranial deformation in Macaca fascicularis: a finite element analysis sensitivity study. Journal of Anatomy, 221: 55-68

Jones M E H, O’Higgins P, Fagan M J, Evans S E, Curtis, N (2012) Shearing Mechanics and the Influence of a Flexible Symphysis During Oral Food Processing in Sphenodon (Lepidosauria: Rhynchocephalia), The Anatomical Record, DOI 10.1002/ar.22487

Milne N, O’Higgins P (2012) Scaling of form and function int he xenarthran femur: a 100-fold increase in body mass is mitigated by repositioning of the third trochanter, Proceedings of the Royal Society B DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2012.0593

O’Higgins P, Fitton L, Phillips R, Shi J F, Liu J, Groening F, Cobb S N, Fagan M J (2012) Virtual functional morphology: novel approaches to the study of craniofacial form and function, Evolutionary Biology, DOI 10.1007/s11692-012-9173-8

Gröning F, Fagan M, O’Higgins P (2012) Modelling the human mandible under masticatory loads. Which input variables are important?, The Anatomical Record, 295 (5): 853-863

Franklin D, Flavel A, Kuliukas A, Cardini A, Marks M K, Hart R. Oxnard C, O’Higgins, P. (2012) Concordance of traditional osteometric and volume rendered MSCT interlandmark cranial measurements. International Journal of Legal Medicine, DOI 10.1007/s00414-012-0772-9

Proa M, O’Higgins P, Monteiro L R (2012) Type I error rates for testing genetic drift with phenotypic covariance matrices: a simulation study. International Journal of Organic Evolution, doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2012.01746.

Combining geometric morphometrics and functional simulation: an emerging toolkit for virtual functional analyses O'Higgins, P., Cobb, S. N., Fitton, L. C., Groening, F., Phillips, R., Liu, J. & Fagan, M. J. 1-Jan-2011 In : Journal of Anatomy. 218, 1, p. 3-15. 13 p.

Combining geometric morphometrics and functional simulation: an emerging toolkit for virtual functional analyses O'Higgins, P., Cobb, S. N., Fitton, L. C., Groening, F., Phillips, R., Liu, J. & Fagan, M. J. Jan-2011 In : Journal of Anatomy. 218, 1, p. 315. 13 p.

Do we need additions to the geometric morphometrics tool-box? Oxnard, C. & O'Higgins, P. 2011 In : American journal of physical anthropology. 144, p. 232-233. 2 p.

Identifying fish scales: The influence of allometry on scale shape and classification Ibanez, A. L. & O'Higgins, P. Apr-2011 In : Fisheries research. 109, 1, p. 54-60. 7 p.

Morphometrics and phylogenetics: Principal components of shape from cranial modules are neither appropriate nor effective cladistic characters Adams, D. C., Cardini, A., Monteiro, L. R., O'Higgins, P., Rohlf, F. J. & O'Higgins, P. Feb-2011 In : Journal of Human Evolution. 60, 2, p. 240-243. 4 p.

Validation of a morphometric reconstruction technique applied to a juvenile pelvis Watson, P. J., O'Higgins, P., Fagan, M. J., Dobson, C. A. & O'Higgins, P. 2011 In : Proceedings of the institution of mechanical engineers part h-Journal of engineering in medicine. 225, H1, p. 48-57. 10 p.

Why Do Humans Have Chins? Testing the Mechanical Significance of Modern Human Symphyseal Morphology With Finite Element Analysis Groening, F., Liu, J., Fagan, M. J. & O'Higgins, P. Apr-2011 In : American journal of physical anthropology. 144, 4, p. 593-606. 14 p.

Comparison between in vivo and theoretical bite performance: Using multi-body modelling to predict muscle and bite forces in a reptile skull Curtis, N., Jones, M. E. H., Lappin, A. K., O'Higgins, P., Evans, S. E. & Fagan, M. J. 19-Oct-2010 In : JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICS. 43, 14, p. 2804-2809. 6 p.

Feedback control from the jaw joints during biting: An investigation of the reptile Sphenodon using multibody modelling Curtis, N., Jones, M. E. H., Evans, S. E., O'Higgins, P., Fagan, M. J. & O'Higgins, P. 1-Dec-2010 In : JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICS. 43, 16, p. 3132-3137. 6 p.

Functional loading, facial remodelling and the formation of the maxillary sinus and maxillary fossa in Macacca fascicularis and Cercocebus torquatus. Fitton, L. C., Shi, J., Liu, J., Fagan, M. J. & O'Higgins, P. 2010 In : American journal of physical anthropology. p. 105-105. 1 p.

Modelling subcortical bone in finite element analyses: A validation and sensitivity study in the macaque mandible (vol 43, pg 1603, 2010) Panagiotopoulou, O., Curtis, N., O'Higgins, P., Cobb, S. N. & O'Higgins, P. 19-Oct-2010 In : JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICS. 43, 14, p. 2867-2867. 1 p.

Predicting muscle activation patterns from motion and anatomy: modelling the skull of Sphenodon (Diapsida: Rhynchocephalia) Curtis, N., Jones, M. E. H., Evans, S. E., Shi, J., O'Higgins, P. & Fagan, M. J. 6-Jan-2010 In : Journal of the Royal Society Interface. 7, 42, p. 153-160. 8 p.

Three-dimensional geometric morphometrics applied to the study of children with cleft lip and/or palate from the North East of England Bugaighis, I., O'Higgins, P., Tiddeman, B., Mattick, C., Ben Ali, O. & Hobson, R. 1-Oct-2010 In : EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ORTHODONTICS. 32, 5, p. 514-521. 8 p.

A comment on Dayal et al. (2008) assessment of sex using the skull Franklin, D., Freedman, L., O'Higgins, P., Oxnard, C. E. & O'Higgins, P. 2009 In : Homo-Journal of comparative human biology. 60, 2, p. 139-142. 4 p.

Assessment of the role of sutures in a lizard skull: a computer modelling study Moazen, M., Curtis, N., O'Higgins, P., Jones, M. E. H., Evans, S. E. & Fagan, M. J. 7-Jan-2009 In : PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 276, 1654, p. 39-46. 8 p.

Biomechanical assessment of evolutionary changes in the lepidosaurian skull Moazen, M., Curtis, N., O'Higgins, P., Evans, S. E. & Fagan, M. J. 19-May-2009 In : Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA. 106, 20, p. 8273-8277. 5 p.

Changing faces: an examination of robust craniofacial features in Macaca majori and implications for the hominid fossil record. Kupzik, K., Smith, A. L., Fagan, M. J., Rook, L., Strait, D. S., Grosse, I. R., O'Higgins, P. & O'Higgins, P. 2009 In : American journal of physical anthropology. p. 242-242. 1 p.

Detecting biological distinctiveness using geometric morphometrics: an example case from the Vancouver Island marmot. Cardini, A., Nagorsen, D., O'Higgins, P., Polly, P. D., Thorington, R. W., Tongiorgi, P. & O'Higgins, P. Dec-2009 In : Ethology ecology. 21, 3-4, p. 209-223. 15 p.

Facial mechanics in early hominins: a study combining geometric morphometrics and finite elements analysis. O'Higgins, P., Cobb, S. N., Fitton, L., Groening, F., Phillips, R., Fagan, M. J. & O'Higgins, P. 2009 In : American journal of physical anthropology. p. 201-202. 2 p.

Masticatory Loading and Bone Adaptation in the Supraorbital Torus of Developing Macaques. Kupczik, K., Dobson, C. A., Crompton, R. H., Phillips, R., Oxnard, C. E., Fagan, M. J., O'Higgins, P. & O'Higgins, P. Jun-2009 In : American journal of physical anthropology. 139, 2, p. 193-203. 11 p.

Mind the gap. A finite element study of the retromolar space and its relation to cortical thickness distribution in the mandibular ramus Groening, F., Fagan, M. J., O'Higgins, P. & O'Higgins, P. 2009 In : American journal of physical anthropology. p. 140-140. 1 p.

THE HEAD AND NECK MUSCLES ASSOCIATED WITH FEEDING IN SPHENODON (REPTILIA: LEPIDOSAURIA: RHYNCHOCEPHALIA) Jones, M. E. H., Curtis, N., O'Higgins, P., Fagan, M. & Evans, S. E. 2009 In : Palaeontologia electronica. 12, 2, p. -. 56 p.

The effect of variations in muscle positions in a complex biomechanical model of a macaque skull Shi, J. F., Curtis, N., Fitton, L., O'Higgins, P., Fagan, M. J. & O'Higgins, P. 2009 In : American journal of physical anthropology. p. 238-238. 1 p.

The role of sutures in modulating strain distribution within the skull of Macaca fascicularis. Fitton, L. C., Kupezik, K., Milne, N., Fagan, M. J., O'Higgins, P. & O'Higgins, P. 2009 In : American journal of physical anthropology. p. 128-128. 1 p.

The role of the zygomaticomaxillary suture in modulating strain distribution within the skull of Macaca fascicularis Milne, N., Fitton, L., O'Higgins, P., Kupczik, K., Fagan, M. J. & O'Higgins, P. 2009 In : Homo-Journal of comparative human biology. 60, 3, p. 281-281. 1 p.

VISUALISING MUSCLE ANATOMY USING THREE-DIMENSIONAL COMPUTER MODELS - AN EXAMPLE USING THE HEAD AND NECK MUSCLES OF SPHENODON Curtis, N., Jones, M. E. H., Evans, S. E., O'Higgins, P. & Fagan, M. J. 2009 In : Palaeontologia electronica. 12, 3, p. -. 18 p.

Validating a voxel-based finite element model of a human mandible using digital speckle pattern interferometry Groning, F., Liu, J., Fagan, M. J., O'Higgins, P. & O'Higgins, P. 19-Jun-2009 In : JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICS. 42, 9, p. 1224-1229. 6 p.

Variation in elasmoid fish scale patterns is informative with regard to taxon and swimming mode Ibanez, A. L., Cowx, I. G. & O'Higgins, P. Apr-2009 In : Zoological journal of the linnean society. 155, 4, p. 834-844. 11 p.

Combined finite element and multibody dynamics analysis of biting in a Uromastyx hardwickii lizard skull Moazen, M., Curtis, N., Evans, S. E., O'Higgins, P., Fagan, M. J. & O'Higgins, P. Nov-2008 In : Journal of Anatomy. 213, 5, p. 499-508. 10 p.

Finite element modelling of anterior dental loading in modern human and Neanderthal mandibles. Groning, F., O'Higgins, P. & O'Higgins, P. 2008 In : American journal of physical anthropology. p. 108-108. 1 p.

GEOMETRIC MORPHOMETRICS AND FUNCTIONAL MORPHOLOGY OF A SARDINIAN FOSSIL MACAQUE: WARPING AND FINITE ELEMENTS ANALYSIS OF CRANIOFACIAL FEATURES IN MACACA MAJORI Smith, A., Kupzik, K., Fagan, M., Rook, L. & O'Higgins, P. Sep-2008 In : Journal of vertebrate paleontology. 28, 3, p. 143A-144A. 2 p.

Is There a Place for Evolutionary Medicine in UK Medical Education? Elton, S. & O'Higgins, P. 2008 In : Medicine and evolution: current applications, future prospects. 48, p. 257-271. 15 p.

MUSCULOSKELETAL MODELLING OF A MACAQUE SKULL - SENSITIVITY STUDIES Shi, J., Curtis, N., Fitton, L., O'Higgins, P. & Fagan, M. Sep-2008 In : Journal of vertebrate paleontology. 28, 3, p. 141A-141A. 1 p.

Mandibular morphology as an indicator of human subadult age: geometric morphometric approaches Franklin, D., Cardini, A., O'Higgins, P., Oxnard, C. E. & Dadour, I. 2008 In : Forensic science medicine and pathology. 4, 2, p. 91-99. 9 p.

Medicine and Evolution Current Applications, Future Prospects Elton, S. & O'Higgins, P. 2008 In : Medicine and evolution: current applications, future prospects. 48, p. 18. 8 p.

Middle cranial fossa anatomy and the origin of modern humans Bastir, M., Rosas, A., Lieberman, D. E. & O'Higgins, P. Feb-2008 In : Anatomical record-Advances in integrative anatomy and evolutionary biology. 291, 2, p. 130-140. 11 p.

Predicting skull loading: Applying multibody dynamics analysis to a macaque skull Curtis, N., Kupczik, K., O'Higgins, P., Moazen, M. & Fagan, M. May-2008 In : Anatomical record-Advances in integrative anatomy and evolutionary biology. 291, 5, p. 491-501. 11 p.

Rigid-body analysis of a lizard skull: Modelling the skull of Uromastyx hardwickii Moazen, M., Curtis, N., Evans, S. E., O'Higgins, P., Fagan, M. J. & O'Higgins, P. 2008 In : JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICS. 41, 6, p. 1274-1280. 7 p.

Sexual dimorphism in the mandible of indigenous South Africans: A geometric morphometric approach Franklin, D., O'Higgins, P., Oxnard, C. E. & O'Higgins, P. 2008 In : South African Journal of Science. 104, 3-4, p. 101-106. 6 p.

3D architecture of the middle cranial fossa and modern human origins. Bastir, M., Rosas, A., O'Higgins, P. & O'Higgins, P. 2007 In : American journal of physical anthropology. p. 69-69. 1 p.

Anthropology - Walking on trees. O'Higgins, P. & Elton, S. 1-Jun-2007 In : Science. 316, 5829, p. 1292-1294. 3 p.

Assessing mechanical function of the zygomatic region in macaques: validation and sensitivity testing of finite element models Kupczik, K., Dobson, C. A., Fagan, M. J., Crompton, R. H., Oxnard, C. E., O'Higgins, P. & O'Higgins, P. Jan-2007 In : Journal of Anatomy. 210, 1, p. 41-53. 13 p.

Bone remodelling response to mechanical strains in the developing primate craniofaciall skeletonKupczik, K., Dobson, C. A., Fagan, M. J., Crompton, R. H., Oxnard, C. E. & O'Higgins, P. Dec-2007 In : Journal of morphology. 268, 12, p. 1096-1096. 1 p.

Facial ontogeny in Neanderthals and modern humans Bastir, M., O'Higgins, P. & Rosas, A. 7-May-2007 In : Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 274, 1614, p. 1125-1132. 7 p.

 

Teaching

Undergraduate

Contributions to undergraduate core anatomy, Medicine

Contributor to medical student self selected components in Human Evolution and  Anatomy  

Final year Archaeology lectures in Human Evolution

Postgraduate

Masters' and PhD supervision

External activities

Memberships

Learned societies

Member, The Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland

Member , American Association of Physical Anthropologists

Member, The Primate Society of Great Britain.

Fellow, Linnean Society of London

Fellow, Higher Education Academy

Honorary Chairs

Honorary Professor, Dept. of Engineering University of Hull

Honorary Professor, Centre for Forensic Sciences, University of Western Australia

Editorial duties

Editorial board, Journal of Anatomy

Contact details

Paul O'Higgins
Centre for Anatomical and Human Sciences, HYMS
University of York
York
YO10 5DD

Tel: (44) 1904 328872