Carole Howorth
Professor of Sustainable and Ethical Entrepreneurship



Professor Carole Howorth is York’s Chair in Sustainable and Ethical Entrepreneurship. She was previously with Bradford University School of Management where she was Professor of Entrepreneurship and Family Business, Associate Dean for Research and in 2016 Interim Dean. Carole researches entrepreneurship in family and social contexts and chairs the Global STEP Family Enterprising Project working with 40 universities around the world to examine successful transgenerational entrepreneurship practices within large family businesses. She is Academic Advisor to the Institute for Family Business Research Foundation and Chair of their Advisory Panel.

Carole was a mature entrant into higher education, having left school at 16 and founded her first business at the age of 19. She worked at Nottingham University as a lecturer in entrepreneurship and corporate finance before joining Lancaster University Management School to specialise in family businesses, becoming Professor of Family Business and Entrepreneurship and founding director of the LUMS Centre for Family Business.


Carole’s teaching is research-led, encouraging students to develop a critical and reflexive approach. Group work and collaboration are essential to entrepreneurship and therefore underpin approaches to entrepreneurship teaching.  Students are encouraged to use academic research, theories and frameworks to solve real world problems and to practically apply them to entrepreneurship. Real world entrepreneurial problems usually require interdisciplinary perspectives, creative approaches and risk taking; students will be encouraged to develop such approaches, alongside consideration of the ethical and societal impact of their entrepreneurial endeavours.

Subject Group

Work Management and Organisation

Departmental roles

REF 2021 Co-ordinator



Professor Carole Howorth mainly conducts research into entrepreneurship at the nexus of social and business values, particularly in family enterprises. Whilst businesses are usually performance based systems, families are about relationships and emotions. Family businesses provide a fascinating context where business imperatives meet social and family values, creating challenges for family and corporate governance and opportunities for alternative approaches to management and strategy. Throughout the world, family businesses are the dominant business form and some have survived for centuries. Many family businesses’ time horizons are not just the next generation but the generations following, making them conscious of their societal and environmental impact and the epitome of sustainable entrepreneurship.

Carole’s work with the Global STEP Family Enterprising Project examines transgenerational entrepreneurship, with a particular interest in family entrepreneurial teams and next generation family members.

Students who are looking to undertake PhD research in areas of entrepreneurship related to family and social enterprises are particularly welcome to get in contact.


Selected publications

Peer Reviewed Journal Articles

(2016) “Company Metamorphosis: Professionalization waves, family firms and management buyouts” Small Business Economics 47(3) 803-817 (with M. Wright, P. Westhead and D. Allcock) DOI 10.1007/s11187-016-9761-6

(2016) "The crafting of an (un)enterprising community: Context and the social practice of talk." International Small Business Journal online first (with C. Parkinson and A. Southern.) DOI: 10.1177/0266242615621123

(2013) Long term perspectives on family business. Business History 55 (6) 841-854 (with Colli, A. and Rose, M.)

(2013) Intrafamily Entrepreneurship: The formation and membership of family entrepreneurial teams. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 37 (1) 17-46(with Discua Cruz, A., and Hamilton, E.)

(2013) How does an old firm learn new tricks? A material account of entrepreneurial opportunity. Business History 55 (1) 53-72 (with Roscoe, P. and Discua Cruz, A.).

(2013) Social entrepreneurs: a situated learning perspective. Academy of Management Learning and Education 11 (3) 371-389 (with Smith, S.M. and Parkinson, C.)

(2012) Demand for private equity minority investments: a study of large family firms. Journal of Family Business Strategy, 3 (1) 38-51 (with Tappeiner, F., Achleitner, A.K., and Schraml, S.)

(2012) Trustworthiness and interest rates: an empirical study of Italian SMEs. Small Business Economics 39 (1)161-177 (with Moro, A.)

(2010) Family firm diversity and development. International Small Business Journal 28 (5) 1-15. (with Rose, M., Hamilton, E., and Westhead, P.)

(2009). Identification through Technical Analysis: A Study of the Charting Behaviour of UK Non-professional Investors Accounting Organizations and Society 34 (2) 206-221. (with Roscoe, P.)

(2009). ‘Family business research at a tipping point threshold.’ Journal of Management and Organization 15 (3) 282-293. (with Craig, J.B., Moores, K., and Poutziouris, P.)

(2009). Epilogue. Family business: a rich research repository. Journal of Management and Organization 15 (3) 392-394. (with Craig, J.B., Moores, K., and Poutziouris, P.)

(2008). A review of sampling and definitional issues in informal venture capital research. Venture Capital 10 (4). (with Farrell, E. and Wright, M.)

(2008). ‘The Language of Social Entrepreneurs.’ Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 20 (3) 285-309 (with Parkinson, C.)

(2008) An analysis of working capital structure and financing pattern of Mauritian small manufacturing firms. The Icfai Journal of Applied Finance (with Padachi, K., Narasimhan, M.S., and Durbarry, R.).

(2007) ‘Types’ of private family firms: an exploratory conceptual and empirical analysis. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 19 (5) 405-431. (with Westhead, P.)

(2006) ‘Ownership and Management Issues Associated with Family Firm Performance and Company Objectives.’ Family Business Review XIX (4) 301-316. (with Westhead, P.)

(2006) ‘Trust within Entrepreneur Bank Relationships: Insights from Italy.’ Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice July 2006, 495-517. (with Moro, A.)

(2005) ‘Rethinking Entrepreneurship Methodology And Definitions Of The Entrepreneur.’ Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 12 (1), 24-40. (with Tempest, S. and Coupland, C.)

(2004). ‘Buyouts, Information Asymmetry And The Family-Management Dyad.’ Journal of Business Venturing. 19 (4), 509-534. (with Westhead, P. and Wright, M.) Reprinted (2013) in Governance and Family Firms, Corporate Governance and the New Global Economy series, edited by Julio Pendado and Ignacio Requejo. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

(2003). ‘An Examination of the Factors Associated with Bank Switching in the UK Small Firm Sector’, Small Business Economics, 20 (4) 305-317. (with Peel, M.J. and Wilson, N.)

(2003) ‘Habitual Late Payment of Trade Credit: An Empirical Examination of UK Small Firms.’ Managerial and Decision Economics. 24-5, July/Aug. (with Reber, B.)

(2003) ‘The Focus of Working Capital Management in UK Small Firms’ Management Accounting Research, 14 (2003) 94-111. (Westhead, P.)

(2003). ‘VAT Regulation in the UK: A review of the costs of compliance for small and medium sized enterprises’ Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 21. (with Hansford, A. and Hasseldine, J.)

(2002). ‘Ownership And Management Issues In First And Multi-Generation Family Firms’ Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 14 (3) 247-269. (with Westhead, P. and Cowling, M.)

(2001) ‘Small Firms’ Demand For Finance’ International Small Business Journal, 19 (4) 74-82.

(2001) ‘The development of family companies: Management and ownership imperatives’ Family Business Review, 14 (4). 369-385. (with Westhead, P. and Cowling, M.)

(2001) ‘Family Business Succession in Portugal’ Family Business Review, 14 (3) 231-244. (with Ali, Z. A.)

(2001) ‘An Empirical Examination of Undergraduate Students’ Module Choices’ International Journal of Management Education, 2 (1).

(2000) ‘Late Payment and Credit Management in the Small Firm Sector: Some Empirical Evidence.’ International Small Business Journal, 18 (2), 17-37. (with Peel, M.J. and Wilson, N.)

(1999) ‘Late Payment and the Small Firm’ Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 5 (4), 307-315. (with Wilson, N.)

Edited Journals (Special Issues)

Business History 55 (6)2013. ‘Long Term Perspectives on Family Businesses’ with A. Colli and M. Rose

International Small Business Journal 28 (5) 2010 ‘Family Business’ with P. Westhead.

Journal of Management and Organization 15 (3) 2009. ‘Family Business: Theory and Practice’ with J. Craig, P. Poutziouris and K. Moores.


(forthcoming) ‘Family Business’ Routledge Masters in Entrepreneurship Series. Abingdon: Routledge. Due July 2017.

Reports (recent only)

(2016) ‘Next Generation Engagement in Family Businesses’  London: IFB Research Foundation. Howorth, C., Parkinson, C., Leitch, C. and Stead, V. ISBN 978-0-9551898-8-3

Book Chapters (* peer reviewed)

(forthcoming 2017) ‘Buyouts of Family Firms: Company Metamorphosis and the Family Management Dyad’ in M. Wright (ed) 30 Years of CMBOR Research.

*(2016) ‘Family Entrepreneurial Teams’ in C. Ben-Hafaiedh and T. Cooney (eds) Research Handbook on Entrepreneurial Teams Theory and Practice. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. (with A. Discua Cruz, E. Hadjielias).

*(2014) ‘Family Business’ in E. Chell and M. KarataƟ-Özkan (eds) Handbook of Research in Small Business and Entrepreneurship. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. (with J. Jackson and A. Discua Cruz)

*(2013) ‘Habitual and portfolio entrepreneurship in the family context: longitudinal perspectives’   in M. Nordqvist, L. Melin & P. Sharma (eds) The SAGE Handbook of Family Business, Sage. (with P. Rosa and A. Discua Cruz)

(2012) ‘Family Business’ in S. Carter and D. Jones Evans (eds) Enterprise and Small Business, 3rd edition. Prentice Hall. (with E. Hamilton)

*(2012) ‘Entrepreneurial learning in the Family Management Group: a social organisational learning perspective’ in Smyrnios, Poutziouris et al (eds) Second Handbook of Research on Family Business, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. (with Hadjielias, E. and Hamilton, E.)

(2011). ‘Discursive chasms: an examination of the language and promotion of social enterprise’ in A. Southern (ed) ‘Enterprise, social exclusion and sustainable communities: the role of small business in addressing social and economic inequalities’ New York and Abingdon: Routledge (with Parkinson, C. and Macdonald, M.)

*(2009). ‘Does enterprise discourse have the power to enable or disable deprived communities?’ in D. Smallbone, H. Landstrom and D. Jones Evans (eds) Entrepreneurship and Growth in Local. Regional and National Economies. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar (with Parkinson, C. and Southern, A.)

 (2008). ‘Family Business Succession in Portugal’ in V. Gupta et al. (eds) Culturally Sensitive Models of Family Business in Latin Europe, Hyderabad: Icfai University Press. (With Ali, Z. A.)

 (2008). Family Business in Honduras: An Alternative Perspective on Theories of Family Firms, in V. Gupta et al., Culturally Sensitive Models of Family Business in Latin America, Hyderabad: Icfai University Press. (With Discua Cruz, A.)

*(2007) ‘Succession, Professionalization and the Staying Power of ‘Familiness’: A Longitudinal Study of Management Buyouts Of Family Firms’ in A. Zacharakis et al (eds), Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, Wellesley, MA: Babson College. (With Wright, M., and Westhead, P.)

*(2006) ‘Definitions, Diversity and Development: Key Debates in Family Business Research’ in Casson, Yeung, Basu and Wadeson (eds) Handbook of Entrepreneurship, Oxford University Press. (with Rose, M., and Hamilton, E.)

*(2006) ‘Identification of Different Types of Private Family Firms’ in Poutziouris et al (eds) Handbook of Research on Family Business, Edward Elgar. (Westhead, P.)

*(2002) ‘Management Buyouts Of Privately Held Family Firms: Implications For Subsequent Firm Performance’ in W. Bygrave et al (eds), Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, Wellesley, MA: Babson College, pp194-205. (with Westhead, P. and Wright, M.)

*(2002) ‘Biases and Heuristics of Novice and Habitual Business Angels’in W. Bygrave et al (eds), Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, Wellesley, MA: Babson College, pp381-392. (With Farrell, E.)

(2002) ‘The Scale and Nature of Family Business’ in D. Fletcher (ed) Understanding the Small Family Business, London: Routledge pp19-31. (with Westhead, P., Cowling, M., and Storey, D.J.)

*(2001) ‘Information Asymmetry And Opportunism: A Study Of Management Buyouts And Buyins Of Family Firms.’ In P. Poutziouris and D. Pistrui (eds) Family Business Research in the Third Millennium, Boston, MA: Family Firm Institute pp 39-54. (with Westhead, P. and Wright, M.)

(1999) ‘Small Business Demand for Trade Credit, Credit Rationing and the Late Payment of Commercial Debt: An Empirical Study’, in M. Wright & K Robbie (eds) Management Buy-Outs and Venture Capital: Into The Next Millenium, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp181-201. (with Wilson, N., and Summers, B.)

Picture of Carole Howorth

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