Penny Spikins
Senior Lecturer in the Archaeology of Human Origins



Penny has been lecturer at the University of York since 2004, becoming a Senior Lecturer in 2012. She was first fascinated by human origins after visiting Upper Palaeolithic cave art sites when she was eleven. Her first degree was in Palaeolithic and Mesolithic Archaeology at Cambridge, followed by a Masters at Leeds, returning afterwards to Cambridge for her PhD. She spent two years carrying out postdoctoral research in Patagonia, and further postdoctoral research as a Sir James Knott research fellow at Newcastle before taking up her first lectureship at Newcastle. 

Penny's early research centred on Mesolithic northern England where she retains an interest and enthusiasm, although she is best known for her later research into the evolution of social emotions and the significance of care for the vulnerable in human origins.  Penny has directed a major excavation project at Mesolithic sites in the Pennines, and underwater archaeological fieldwork in the North-East. Her published volumes include Mesolithic Europe (CUP) with Geoff Bailey, Prehistoric People of the Pennines (West Yorkshire Archaeology Service) and Mesolithic northern England: Environment, Population and Settlement (BAR). Over the last ten years she has particularly focused on cognitive and social evolution, publishing papers on the evolution of compassion (Time and Mind), dynamics of egalitarianism (Journal of World Prehistory), the origins of autism (Cambridge Archaeological Journal), evolution of self control and display in artefacts (World Archaeology) and Neanderthal childhood (Oxford Archaeological Journal).

Penny's latest book, How Compassion Made Us Human (Pen and Sword) argues that a selection for pro-social emotional motivations has been the driving force behind human evolution, particularly considering how sensitivity and self control can be displayed through material things. Her recent research has focused on emotional attachments to objects, including attachments formed by individuals with autism. She is also developing further research on the evolution of moral emotions, including motivations for tolerance and inclusion, courage, compassion and gratitude. 



  • Evolutionary Anthropology / Human Origins 
  • Cognitive and Social Evolution (evolution of moral emotions, cognitive variability in past and present societies)
  • Hunter-gatherer populations (Archaeology of north-west Europe and southern South America in the early Holocene, Ethnographic approaches)

Specialist areas:

Penny's recent and upcoming publications reflect her interest in social-emotional dynamics in past societies and how to relate archaeological evidence to changes in emotional capacities in early prehistory. She has papers in Cambridge Archaeological Journal, Time and Mind, Evolutionary Behavioural Sciences and Open Archaeology on cognitive variability and autism in prehistory, in Open Quaternary on the role of commitments and spite on human dispersal, in  Journal of World Prehistory on the role of prestigious leaders in mesolithic societies, in Time and Mind and World Archaeology on the evolution of compassion and its identification in the past, in World Archaeology on the role of trust and reputation in palaeolithic handaxe form and in Time and Mind on evolved attachment to objects in prehistory.

Penny's recent research focuses on the evolution of moral emotions, including her recent book How Compassion Made Us Human as well as on the palaeolithic origins of healthcare (papers in World Archaeology and Quaternary Science Reviews).  She is currently writing a new volume - Hidden Depths: The ancestry of our most human emotions - funded by the John Templeton Foundation. 

Penny has also pioneered research on GIS based landscape interpretation, extending this to incorporate site based stratigraphic modelling. Using material from her work at March Hill, she has been a leader in the development of new analytical and interpretative approaches to hunter-gatherer sites, a role reflected in her co-editing (with Geoff Bailey) of a major volume on the Mesolithic in Europe published by Cambridge University Press.



First Year

  • contributor to Prehistory to the Present (Palaeolithic)

Second Year

  • Themes in Prehistory: Middle Palaeolithic Themes and Upper Palaeolithic Themes

Third Year

  • Assessed Seminars: Neanderthals
  • Special Topic: Human Evolution


  • Evolving Minds and Societies
  • Hunter-gatherers of the Upper Palaeolithic


  • MSc in Early Prehistory - degree programme co-ordinator
  • core module: Evolving Minds and Societies
  • core module: Hunter-Gatherers
  • contributor to the MSc in AIS

External activities


Penny Spikins 218

Contact details

Dr Penny Spikins
Department of Archaeology
University of York
The King's Manor

Tel: (44) 1904 323962