Exploring Russia's Environmental History and Natural Resources

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The Network

Funded by a Leverhulme International Network grant for £123,000, for three years from July 2013, a network of specialists at British, American and Russian institutions is conducting multidisciplinary research into key aspects of the environmental history and natural resources of lands that have come under Russian rule over a long time period and in a global comparative perspective.

The network activities revolve around workshops and field trips in St Petersburg, the Solovetskii islands in the White Sea, the Chernobyl exclusion zone in Ukraine, and Lake Baikal in Siberia, culminating in a final conference in York.

By adding field work to conventional historical research we will enhance our understanding of the history of Russian scientific research, exploitation of natural resources, environmental disasters, and nature conservation.

Lead investigator: David Moon, Anniversary Professor, Dept of History, University of York.

Network Institutions:

Members of the network team after a preliminary meeting and workshop on the historic icebreaker Krasin (which was built on the river Tyne in 1916) in St Petersburg in March 2013.

Members of the network team after a preliminary meeting and workshop on the historic icebreaker Krasin (which was built on the river Tyne in 1916) in St Petersburg in March 2013.

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Institutions

The Network: Institutions

The University of York

York is a research-led university and member of the Russell group. Its ambitious Development Plan includes investment in ‘Anniversary Professors’. High on the agenda are interdisciplinary research, facilitated by such units as the York Environmental Sustainability Institute (YESI), and internationalisation: producing research of worldwide significance and creating links with top institutions internationally.

The History Dept at York was ranked 2nd for the quality, significance and impact of its research in the Research Excellence Framework (REF) 2014, the most authoritative assessment of research quality in the UK. This confirms York’s reputation as one of the best history departments in the UK and the world. Ranked 8th in the Times and Sunday Times Good University Guide subject league table for 2015, it is also one of the top departments in the world for the advanced study of History and related disciplines (QS world subject rankings 2014), combining groundbreaking research with degree programmes that offer incredible chronological breadth and geographical scope.

PI Moon has been ‘Anniversary Professor’ in History at York University since 1 October 2012. The History Department has a Research Cluster on ‘Science, technology, environment, medicine’ http://www.york.ac.uk/history/research/researchclusters/stem/. YESI can contribute scientific expertise. Specialists at York will participate fully in the Network’s activities and the final conference will take advantage of York University’s facilities. York University, where PI Moon will work closely with the Network Facilitator based in the HRC, will also serve as the organizational hub of the network.

www.york.ac.uk

The University of Glasgow

Glasgow is an ancient Scottish university, founded in 1451, and is a leading international research centre. It is a member of the Russell Group of research-intensive universities, and a founder member of Universitas 21, an international grouping dedicated to setting worldwide standards for higher education. It has a reputation for research that benefits industry, society, and the environment. It has a long history of leading scientific research. It is also one of the major international centres for research on Russia, Central and Eastern Europe and has one of the best libraries in the field in the UK.

Glasgow University has a centre of excellence for Central and East European Studies (CEES), which is the hub of the inter-university Centre for Russian, Central and East European Studies (CRCEES). The University/CEES has extensive links in the region. Thus, Glasgow will provide expertise in Area Studies with specialists on environmental/geographical thought (CI Oldfield) and energy policy (Butler), who, together with their postgraduates, will play a full role in the network. Glasgow's extensive links in the region include a formal agreement with the National University of Kyiv Mohyla Academy, Ukraine, which will assist in organizing the Workshop/Field Trip to Chernobyl.

www.glasgow.ac.uk

The University of Birmingham

The University of Birmingham has considerable expertise in both environmental studies, in the School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences (GEES) and in Russian, European and Eurasian Studies (REES), and so is an excellent partner in our network ‘Exploring Russia’s Environmental History and Natural Resources’.

The lead person for the network at Birmingham is Dr Jonathan Oldfield, who is Reader in Russian Environmental Studies. He is a member of GEES and associated with REES. He is one of the leading scholars internationally in the field of Russian environmental thought, and has published extensively in the field. Oldfield was previously a member of the network when he worked at the University of Glasgow, before moving to Birmingham, and took part and presented a paper at the network workshop in St Petersburg, Russia, in the summer of 2013. Birmingham University is also the institutional home of Dr Denis Shaw, who is one of the leading figures internationally in our field.  Shaw now holds an emeritus position, but is still very active in the field.

Birmingham University’s excellent library holdings in the field and array of other specialists from whom we can seek advice are further assets to the network.

http://www.birmingham.ac.uk

Georgetown University

Established in 1789 as a Jesuit institution, Georgetown University is one of the world’s leading academic and research institutions dedicated to real-world applications of our research, scholarship, and service. Georgetown is internationally known for its School of Foreign Service, and attracts students from all over the world. Georgetown offers MA and Ph.D. programs through the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Law Center, School of Medicine, and School of Continuing Studies. The university’s location in Washington, DC, provides unparalleled opportunities for research in libraries and archives, contacts with leading scientific centers and institutes, and top policy think tanks. 

Georgetown University has a strong reputation in Russian history and Environmental studies. Feshbach’s pathbreaking work (1993) established Georgetown as a major presence in Russian environmental history. Georgetown’s Environment Initiative is bringing together researchers in the natural sciences, social sciences, humanities, and policy studies. Thus, Georgetown will provide expertise in Russian history and culture, in particular its regions and environment (CI Evtuhov), Soviet history (David- Fox) and global environmental history (McNeill), who, together with their graduate students, will play a full role in the network. Georgetown’s Environment Initiative has awarded $7000 for a workshop in St. Petersburg before the network’s formal start.

www.georgetown.edu

The Ohio State University

The Ohio State University (OSU) is one of America’s largest and most comprehensive universities. It is a top-20 public university and a Tier-I research center in the USA. The History Department is in the top 10 of public universities according to US News and World Report. OSU is one of the leading locations in the USA for research and education in Russian Area Studies, with an excellent library. The Center for Slavic Studies at OSU has consistently received prestigious Title VI Area Studies Funding from the US Department of Education.

OSU has considerable expertise in Russian, Eurasian, and global environmental history. It is home to a US-government funded Center in Slavic Studies, research centers interested in environmental questions, and links with institutions near Lake Baikal. The history Department has a very strong presence in Russian, East European, and Eurasian history and in the history of Environment, Technology, and Science.   Thus, OSU will provide expertise in areas central to the network. CI Breyfogle has extensive experience of research and field work in Eurasia and expertise in the environmental history of Lake Baikal and the global history of water. He will be fully involved; his colleagues and graduate students with relevant expertise will also take part. Breyfogle will assist in organizing the Baikal workshop/field trip.

www.osu.edu

The National Research University – Higher School of Economics in St Petersburg

The National Research University - Higher School of Economics (NRU-HSE), founded by the Russian government in 1992, is one of Russia’s major research universities. In October 2009, it received the status of National Research University. It has four branches: Moscow, St Petersburg, Nizhnii Novgorod, and Perm. The HSE and its academic staff have a high international profile and partners around the world, including the London School of Economics, the Sorbonne in Paris, and Humboldt University in Germany. The academic range of the HSE extends from the social sciences andhumanities to business, management and software engineering.

The History Department of the St Petersburg campus of the NRU-HSE has considerable expertise in Russian, global, and transnational history. The main foci of its Centre for Historical Research (director CI Selin) include environmental and technological history, the comparative history of empires, the history of frontiers in Northern Europe, migration and transport. Thus, the NRU-HSE-St Petersburg can offer wideranging expertise crucial to the research of the network. CI Selin, and appropriate colleagues and graduate students, will be fully involved. NRU-HSE-St Petersburg will host the initial workshop and facilitate contacts in Russia to assist in organizing the field trips.

spb.hse.ru

The European University at St Petersburg

The European University at St Petersburg (EUSP) was founded in 1994 to advance training and research in economics, anthropology, history, political science, sociology, and history of the arts. Its mission is to satisfy societal needs in training specialists and developing their potential on the basis of achievements of Russian and international experience and cooperation. It has quickly established itself as a major centre for research in the former imperial capital and has forged contacts with universities and researchers around the world. Researchers also benefit from the rich library and archival resources and links with other research institutions in St Petersburg.

eu.spb.ru/en/

People

The Network: People

Lead Investigator: David Moon (University of York)

Professor David Moon on the Askania Nova nature reserve in Ukraine with some wild horses 

Professor David Moon has been Anniversary Professor in History at York University since 1 October 2012. His research in Russian and transnational environmental history has an international reputation. He has considerable experience of research and field work in Russia and Ukraine, and has extensive international contacts. He was awarded the 2007 publication prize by the European Society for Environmental History and German Historical Institute for an article on the environmental history of the steppe region of Russia.His latest book, The Plough that Broke the Steppes: Agriculture and Environment on Russia’s Grasslands, 1700-1914, is published by Oxford University Press.

Read more about David Moon

David led the Network’s Fieldtrip to St Petersburg and Volkhov Hydroelectric Power Station in March 2013, Fieldtrip to St Petersburg and the Solovetskii Islands in the White Sea in August 2013 and the Fieldtrip to Lake Baikal in July-August 2015.

David's essay on Solovki david-moon-solovki-essay (PDF  , 74kb)


Network Facilitator: Victoria Beale (University of York)

Victoria Beale at Mnarani Turtle Sanctuary on Zanzibar Island, Tanzania

Victoria Beale brings both her environmental training and experience of environmental networks, events adminstration, logistics and communications to the team. She studied Natural Sciences at the University of Cambridge and holds a Masters degree in Wildlife Management and Control from the University of Reading. She has experience of website design and development and was webeditor and member of the planning committee for the European Christian Environmental Network for several years. Victoria has lived and worked in various countries and brings experience of logistical organisation overseas.


Partner: Dr Eamonn Butler (University of Glasgow)

Dr Eamonn Butler

Dr Butler is a Lecturer in the Department of Central and East European Studies at the University of Glasgow. He also lectures on and coordinates the University’s Global Security MSc programme. His PhD was entitled, "The European Union and Eastern Enlargement: Hungary and the Security Lens", which adopted a multi-lens approach to understanding EU enlargement and recognized the relevance of environmental security as a possible driver for integration. His recent work examines energy relations in the Central and East European Region and he has published on energy sector relations between corporations, the EU and its member states, and third parties, including Russia.  Working with colleagues across Europe, he plays an active role in the Research Network, Assessing Accession - Central and Eastern Europe in the EU, which aims to undertake and enhance evaluative research on the 2004 and 2007 EU enlargements and how these enlargements have impacted the wider region, including the former Soviet Republics.

Read more about Eamonn Butler


Partner: Jonathan Oldfield (University of Birmingham)

Dr Jonathan Oldfield

Dr Jonathan Oldfield is a Reader in Russian Environmental Studies. His research interests include: Soviet/post-Soviet understandings of climate change; Russian geographical thought; History of geographical sciences (Russia); and Sustainable development and related concepts. He will contribute his considerable expertise and experience in the fields of Russian environmental and geographical thought, including the international reception of Russian ideas, on which he has built up a significant record of publication. In addition, his initial training as a geographer will complement the intellectual backgrounds of other members of the network, and assist in facilitating cross-disciplinary approaches to the network’s research foci.

In October 2015 Jon Oldfield and Denis Shaw published their book, The Development of Russian Environmental Thought. More information on the book.

Read more about Jonathan Oldfield

Jonanthan took part in the Network’s Fieldtrip to St Petersburg and Volkhov Hydroelectric Power Station in March 2013 and the Fieldtrip to St Petersburg and the Solovetskii Islands in the White Sea in August 2013.

Jonathan's essay on Solovki solovki-essay-oldfield (PDF  , 320kb)


Partner: Catherine Evtuhov (Georgetown University)

Professor Catherine Evtuhov

Professor Catherine Evtuhov has been teaching in the History Department at Georgetown since 1992. Her interests include the history of Russian thought in European context, material culture and local history, and the history of the Black Sea region and Russian-Ottoman relations. She has written on topics ranging broadly over the eighteenth to the twentieth centuries. She has been Director of Graduate Studies in the History Department, and convenor (with Eric Lohr, American University) of the D.C. Russian History Workshop sponsored by the Georgetown Institute for Global History. She has been visiting professor at the Alexander Institute for Historical Studies at the University of Helsinki, the Hoover Institution at Stanford University, the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales in Paris, and Bogazici University in Istanbul. She teaches courses in Russian history, the history of ideas, and the Black Sea in history and politics.

Read more about Catherine Evtuhov

Catherine took part in the Network’s Fieldtrip to St Petersburg and Volkhov Hydroelectric Power Station in March 2013, Fieldtrip to St Petersburg and the Solovetskii Islands in the White Sea in August 2013 and the Fieldtrip to Lake Baikal in July-August 2015.


Partner: Nicholas Breyfogle (Ohio State University)

Professor Nicholas Breyfogle on the Circumbaikal railway, at Lake Baikal, Russia, summer 2010

Nicholas Breyfogle is Associate Professor of History at The Ohio State University.   He is currently completing the book:   Baikal: the Great Lake and its People, supported by fellowships from NEH, ACLS, NCEEER, American Philosophical Society, Kennan Institute, Davis Center at Harvard University, Mershon Center, and Ohio State University.  He is also working on the project Water: A Human History.   He is the author of Heretics and Colonizers:  Forging Russia’s Empire in the South Caucasus (Cornell University Press, 2005, pbk 2011); and is editor or co-editor of Peopling the Russian Periphery: Borderland Colonization in Eurasian History (Routledge, 2007, pbk and ebook 2009); Health, Disease, and Environment in Global History, Guest Co-Editor of Journal of World History (volume 24, issue 4 (December 2013)); Eurasian Environments:   Nature and Ecology in Russian and Soviet History (forthcoming, University of Pittsburgh Press); and the online magazine Origins: Current Events in Historical Perspective http://origins.osu.edu

Read more about Nicholas Breyfogle

Nick took part in the Network’s Fieldtrip to St Petersburg and the Solovetskii Islands in the White Sea in August 2013 and the Fieldtrip to Lake Baikal in July-August 2015.

Environment–Water–History: Explorations in Ecological History from Ohio State historian Nicholas Breyfogle. A series of blog posts resulting from the Solovki trip. https://u.osu.edu/breyfogle.1/


Partner: Adrian Selin (The National Research University – Higher School of Economics in St Petersburg)

Professor Adrian Selin

Professor Adrian Selin is Director of The Center for Historical Research at the Higher School of Economics. He has considerable expertise in the history and historical geography of northwestern Russia in a wider comparative perspective dating back to medieval times. His experience includes research and field work in the region. In August 2012, he took part in the European Society for Environmental History Summer School, which was hosted jointly by the history department of the NRU-HSE-St Petersburg and the European University at St Petersburg. His reseach focuses on the medieval and early modern periods.

Adrian took part in the Network’s Fieldtrip to St Petersburg and Volkhov Hydroelectric Power Station in March 2013.


Partner: Alexandra Bekasova (The National Research University – Higher School of Economics in St Petersburg)

Dr Alexandra Bekasova

Professor Alexandra Bekasova is a Professor in the History department of the European University at St Petersburg. Her reseach interests include the sociocultural history of science and technology; environmental history; history of mobility and transportation; and the history of noble families in Russia in the 18th and the first half of the 19th centuries.

Read more about Alexandra Bekasova

Alexandra took part in the Network’s Fieldtrip to St Petersburg and Volkhov Hydroelectric Power Station in March 2013, Fieldtrip to St Petersburg and the Solovetskii Islands in the White Sea in August 2013 and the Fieldtrip to Lake Baikal in July-August 2015.


Associated Researcher: Julia Lajus (The National Research University Higher School of Economics in St Petersburg)

Dr Julia Lajus

Dr Julia Lajus is Associate Professor of Faculty of History and Senior Researcher at the Center for Historical Research at National Research University Higher School of Economics (St. Petersburg). She is also a Director of the Center for Environmental and Technological History at the European University at St Petersburg. Her main rearch interests are the environmental history of Russia, marine and Arctic environmental history, history of marine and polar science.

Read more about Julia Lajus

Julia took part in the Network’s Fieldtrip to St Petersburg and Volkhov Hydroelectric Power Station in March 2013, Fieldtrip to St Petersburg and the Solovetskii Islands in the White Sea in August 2013 and the Fieldtrip to Lake Baikal in July-August 2015.


Associated Researcher: Alexei Kraikovsky (The European University at St Petersburg)

Professor Alexei Kraikovsky

Prof Alexei Kraikovsky is Assistant Professor at the Department of History and Research Fellow at the Center for Environmental and Technological History at the European University at St Petersburg. His research interests include the Ecological history of Russia, history of fisheries, ecological history of the Arctic Region and the history and source studies of the Russian economy XVI-XVIII. He has been a researcher at the EUSP since 2000 and teaches a course on historical geography and another on Museum Studies. He is an experienced guest lecturer, having spoken at many Russian and foreign universities. He is also a qualified guide.

Read more about Alexei Kraikovsky

Alexei took part in the Network’s Fieldtrip to St Petersburg and Volkhov Hydroelectric Power Station in March 2013 and the Fieldtrip to St Petersburg and the Solovetskii Islands in the White Sea in August 2013.


Associated Researcher : Elena Kochetkova (National Research University Higher School of Economics in St. Petersburg / University of Helsinki)

Elena Kochetkova is a Senior Lecturer in the History Department of the National Research University Higher School of Economics and also a PhD student at the University of Helsinki. Her field of study includes the history of science and technology, Soviet history, environmental history and regional studies. She is currently finishing her PhD on modernization of Soviet forestry industry and technology transfer from West to East in 1950s-60s.

Read more about Elena Kochetkova

Elena took part in the Network’s Fieldtrip to Lake Baikal in July-August 2015.


Associated Researcher: Denis Shaw (University of Birmingham)

Dr Denis Shaw is Honorary Senior Research Fellow and sometime Reader in Russian Geography in the School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, having been a member of the department and associate member of the Centre for Russian and East European Studies since 1971. He is a specialist on the historical geography of Russia with particular reference to the history of geographical and related environmental sciences.

In October 2015 Denis Shaw and Jon Oldfield published their book, The Development of Russian Environmental Thought. More information on the book.

Read more about Denis Shaw

Denis took part in the Network’s Fieldtrip to St Petersburg and Volkhov Hydroelectric Power Station in March 2013.


Associated Researcher: Michael David-Fox (Georgetown University)

Professor Michael David-Fox

Professor Michael David-Fox is a historian of modern Russian and Soviet history. He has published widely on the political, cultural, and intellectual history of late imperial Russia and the Soviet Union. He has strong interests in transnational and comparative history and in the history of Russian-German relations, broadly conceived. David-Fox is now working on the history of the Nazi occupation of the USSR during World War II and the history of Stalinism and German occupational rule in one region, Smolensk. He is a founding and executive editor of the journal Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian Studies, based at Georgetown.

Read more about Michael David-Fox

Michael took part in the Network’s Fieldtrip to St Petersburg and the Solovetskii Islands in the White Sea in August 2013.

Michael's essay on Solovki solovki-essay-dmf (PDF  , 300kb)


Associated Researcher: Bryce Beukers-Stewart (The University of York)

Dr Bryce Beukers-Stewart is a Lecturer in the Environment Department of the University of York. He is a marine ecologist and fisheries biologist whose work has ranged from temperate estuaries to tropical coral reefs and the deep-sea. The central thread in his research has been to gain an increased understanding of the factors regulating marine populations and communities so as to ensure their sustainable utilisation. His work on deep-sea fishes was among the first to demonstrate their extreme longevity, and on coral reefs he provided new evidence for mechanisms of community regulation of prey fish by predators. More recently his focus has been on how to improve the management of fisheries through the use of predictive recruitment models, marine protected areas and stock enhancement. Bryce has also been especially active in promoting the sale and consumption of sustainable seafood by working with everyone from government ministers to fishermen, restaurants and supermarket chains.

Read more about Bryce Beukers-Stewart

Bryce took part in the Network’s Fieldtrip to Lake Baikal in July-August 2015.

Read Bryce’s article “New dams, warming waters, forest fires - Lake Baikal in peril” published in The Ecologist.


Visiting Researcher: Boris Gasparov (Columbia University)

Professor Boris Gasparov

Prof Boris Gasparov is professor of Russian, co-chair and founder of the University Seminar on Romanticism, and a member of the Seminars on Linguistics and on Slavic History and Culture. His research interests include Slavic and general linguistics, Russian and European Romanticism, Russian literature and culture of the 20th century, and music.

Read more about Boris Gasparov

Boris took part in the Network’s Fieldtrip to St Petersburg and the Solovetskii Islands in the White Sea in August 2013 and the Fieldtrip to Lake Baikal in July-August 2015.


Visiting Researcher: Kate Brown (University of Maryland Baltimore County)

Professor Kate Brown

Prof Kate Brown is an Associate Professor of History at UMBC.  She is the author of A Biography of No Place: From Ethnic Borderland to Soviet Heartland (Harvard 2004) which won a handful of prizes including the American Historical Association’s George Louis Beer Prize for the Best Book in International European History. Brown’s Plutopia: Nuclear Families in Atomic Cities and the Great Soviet and American Plutonium Disasters appeared in 2013 with Oxford University Press.

Read more about Kate Brown

Kate took part in the Network’s Fieldtrip to St Petersburg and the Solovetskii Islands in the White Sea in August 2013.


Visiting Researcher: Andy Bruno (Northern Illinois University)

Andy Bruno is Assistant Professor in the History Department of Northern Illinois University, USA. His fields of study include Russia/Soviet Union, Modern Europe, Arctic, Environmental History, and Climate. In his first book, The Nature of Soviet Power: An Arctic Environmental History (Cambridge UP, forthcoming 2016), he examines the environmental history of economic transformation in the Russian north during the twentieth century. The study asks questions about the relationship between nature and power in the Soviet Union, the forms of interaction with the environment that developed in communist systems, and the role of the Arctic in global environmental history. It is based on an in-depth examination of a range of industries on the Kola Peninsula in the northwest corner of Russia. He also has several article-length projects that address industrial waste and Soviet environmental performance, the environmental history of the Russian Revolution, and environmental subjectivity in the Soviet Union. Future projects will focus on the Tunguska explosion of 1908 and Eurasian climate history.

Read more about Andy Bruno

Andy  took part in the Network’s Fieldtrip to St Petersburg and Volkhov Hydroelectric Power Station in March 2013 and the Fieldtrip to Lake Baikal in July-August 2015.


Ph.D. Student: Abi Sutton (The University of York)

Abi Sutton

Abi Sutton is a PhD student in the Environment Department in the University of York whose research focuses on the routes to successfully managed inshore fisheries. Previous work on this topic looked at policy dialogue mechanisms for successful implementation of co-management in Scotland’s inshore fishing sector. Of great interest to her current PhD research is the interaction between natural resources, social actors and their knowledge systems, economics and culture, and how this impacts on the effectiveness of fisheries management. She is currently working on an in depth analysis of the role of leadership in fisheries management and how the influence of a leader can impact fishing policy. The next step in her PhD is to continue research on the Qualitative Comparative Analysis methodology, that allows study and comparison of complex qualitative case studies.

Abi took part in the Network’s Fieldtrip to St Petersburg and the Solovetskii Islands in the White Sea in August 2013.

Abi's essay on Solovki ‌


Visiting Researcher: Jack Sharples (The European University at St Petersburg)

Jack Sharples

Dr Jack Sharples is Associate Professor in the Department of Political Science and Sociology at the European University of St Petersburg. His post also includes being a Lecturer in Energy Politics on the MA in Energy Politics in Eurasia (ENERPO) and Academic Director of the International MA in Russian and Eurasian Studies (IMARES) in the Department of International Studies. In 2014 Jack successfully completed his Ph.D. at the University of Glasgow on “A critical exploration of Russian state and expert conceptions of Russia’s gas exports to the EU during the Medvedev Presidency (2008-2012)”. His research interests include Russian external energy policy, Russian domestic energy policy, Russia-EU energy relations, Russian foreign policy and relations with the EU, Energy security, and Climate Change.

Jack took part in the Network’s Fieldtrip to St Petersburg and the Solovetskii Islands in the White Sea in August 2013.

Read more about Jack Sharples

Jack's Essay on Solovki solovki-essay-sharples (PDF  , 70kb)


Ph.D. Student: Ion Voicu Sucala (The University of Glasgow)

Ion Voicu Sucala

Ion Voicu Sucala is a Ph.D. student whose subject is “The selection of the organisational elite in Communist Romania”. His research interests include organisation studies, Euro-Asian comparative studies and organisational elites.

Read more about Ion Voicu Sucala

Voicu took part in the Network’s Fieldtrip to St Petersburg and the Solovetskii Islands in the White Sea in August 2013 and the Fieldtrip to Lake Baikal in July-August 2015.

Voicu's essay on Solovki solovki-essay-sucala (PDF  , 312kb)


(Now completed) Ph.D. Student: Alan Roe (Georgetown University)

Alan Roe

Dr Alan Roe has taken part in the Network's activities as a Ph.D. student of Russian Environmental History at Georgetown University. He is fascinated by the use of rivers for energy, the development of Siberian cities in the late 20th century, human views of the natural world, and environmental protection efforts.

In 2015 Alan successfully completed his Ph.D. “Into Soviet Nature: Tourism, Environmental Protection, and the Formation of Soviet National Parks, 1950s-1990s”. The dissertation works in two directions that are inextricably intertwined. First, he examines the state’s promotion of tourism as a means to cultivate a love for the varied natural landscapes of the USSR as well as the attitudes of tourists to the “natural” world.  Secondly, his dissertation focuses on how preserving some of the Soviet Union’s most beautiful  natural landscapes for tourists became the justification for a new form of nature preservation for the Soviet Union and then the Russian Federation--national parks--from the 1960s through the 1990s.  In addition to visiting over 25 archives in different parts of the Russian Federation, he has conducted many interviews.  When he gets the chance, he enjoys seeking a little inspiration in some of Russia's magnificent landscapes. Read Alan's dissertation abstract alan-dissertation-abstract (PDF  , 95kb).

Alan took part in the Network’s Fieldtrip to St Petersburg and Volkhov Hydroelectric Power Station in March 2013, Fieldtrip to St Petersburg and the Solovetskii Islands in the White Sea in August 2013 and the Fieldtrip to Lake Baikal in July-August 2015.

Alan's essay on visiting Russia's National Parks national-park-essay-roe (PDF  , 74kb)


Ph.D. Student: Mark Sokolsky (Ohio State University)


Mark Sokolsky is a Ph.D. student studying Russian, environmental, and European history.  His current research examines the relationships between colonization, environmental change, and ethno-national conflict in the Maritime Province of the Russian Far East. He is especially interested in questions of human-nature interactions, modernization, nationalism, and global comparative history.

Read more about Mark Sokolsky

Mark took part in the Network’s Fieldtrip to St Petersburg and the Solovetskii Islands in the White Sea in August 2013 and the Fieldtrip to Lake Baikal in July-August 2015.

Mark's essay on Solovki solovki-essay-sokolsky (PDF  , 81kb)


 Ph. D Student: Hazel Long (The University of Glasgow)

Hazel Long is a Ph. D student in the Department of Geographical and Earth Sciences at the University of Glasgow, supervised by Prof. Susan Waldron, Prof. Trevor Hoey and Dr. Jason Newton.  Her research focuses on aquatic carbon cycling and CO2 fluxes between freshwaters and the atmosphere.  Rivers are often over saturated with CO2 and so act as a source of CO2  (a greenhouse gas) to the atmosphere through a process called CO2 efflux.  Understanding the magnitude of and controls on this process is vital under our changing climate to enable us to predict how riverine CO2 efflux will respond to the projected changes in temperature and hydrological regimes. 

The high latitudes are particularly vulnerable to climate change and are dominated by permafrost soils which store vast amounts of carbon.  As soils melt and drain under a warming climate, there is great potential for this stored carbon to be released to the atmosphere, and exacerbate climate change.  One route for carbon to return to the atmosphere is via CO2 efflux from the meltwaters.  Despite the vast global coverage of permafrost and numerous associated drainage networks, there are currently very little CO2 efflux data from these regions.  In an attempt to fill this gap, Hazel has recently expanded her research from rivers in temperate Scotland to drainage systems in arctic Greenland. 

Hazel took part in the Network’s Fieldtrip to Lake Baikal in July-August 2015.


Ph. D Student : Ekaterina Kalemeneva (National Research University Higher School of Economics in St. Petersburg)

Ekaterina Kalemeneva is a PhD student at the Department of History, the National Research University Higher School of Economics in St. Petersburg. Her dissertation project, ‘Making the Arctic comfortable’: projects and practices of urban development of the Soviet Far North in the 1950s-1960s, explores changes in urbanization models for the Soviet Arctic after Stalin’s death and the role of central and local scientists in the construction of a new conception of the North in the Soviet Union. Her research interests include Soviet studies, urban history, history of science and environmental history.

Ekaterina took part in the Network’s Fieldtrip to Lake Baikal in July-August 2015.

 

The Project

The Project

Russia’s environmental history has been generally misunderstood. The words ‘Russia’ or ‘Soviet Union’ and ‘environment’ conjure up images of gargantuan schemes to conquer nature by diverting rivers, ruthless exploitation of natural resources, in particular oil and gas, and disasters on the scale of the explosion at the Chernobyl nuclear power station. The undeniable damage caused to the environment, which has pervaded much academic literature (Feshbach), is only one side of the story. There has also been a long-standing emphasis in scholarly writing on ‘environmental determinism’: the notion that Russia’s harsh environment has created the conditions for the development of authoritarian political systems (Pipes). Such views have been challenged (Bassin), but there is a need to reassess the relationship between the human and natural worlds in this vast part of the northern hemisphere.

Aims

  1. To offer a more nuanced interpretation by conducting collaborative, multidisciplinary research into the interaction between the human and natural worlds of the lands that have come under Russian rule over half a millennium from tsarist to post-Soviet times. The time depth will allow analysis of the changing ‘balance of power’ between society and ‘the environment’. Over time, science and technology have assisted in understanding and protecting as well as exploiting natural resources (Shtil’mark, Weiner).
  2. To locate Russian and Soviet environmental history in a global comparative perspective to raise questions about Russian and Soviet exceptionalism, e.g. the Chernobyl nuclear disaster can be compared with disasters at Windscale, UK, in 1957, Three-Mile Island, USA, in 1979, and Fukushima, Japan, in 2011. The comparative perspective will highlight areas of Russian innovation, e.g. in the late-nineteenth century, Russian scientists were among the pioneers of theories of ‘sustainability’ and nature protection. Russian scientific nature reserves (zapovedniki) anticipated the principles of UNESCO biosphere reserves (Oldfield and Shaw, Weiner).
  3. To offer a historical perspective on important contemporary environmental issues by analyzing Russia’s role in:
  • the development and exploitation of natural resources (e.g. oil, gas, diamonds and nickel, but also timber from the forests and fish from seas and lakes)
  • identifying the causes and addressing the consequences of pollution; and oxygen production by Russia’s vast forests as ‘reverse greenhouse gases’
  1. To challenge all the network partners by taking them in new directions in their research, and to contribute to the further development of environmental history as a sub-discipline of history at universities in Russia.

Research foci

  1.  The origins, international diffusion, and significance of Russian research on the natural environment since the eighteenth century
  2.  The exploitation of natural resources by the application of science and technology
  3.  The causes and consequences of environmental disasters
  4.  Nature conservation and biodiversity and the origins, changing scientific rationale, and current state of scientific nature reserves
  5.  The impact of the environment on geographies of power and culture

Significance

The significance of the network lies in two areas:

1. Transnational and multidisciplinary approaches to Russia’s environmental history

The network has been carefully constructed to bring together specialists from a variety national and disciplinary backgrounds to collaborate in investigating important, and under-researched, aspects of Russia’s environmental history over a long time period and in a comparative perspective.

2. Methodology

The network will develop an original methodology for environmental history by combining conventional historical research and academic discussions with field work in specific places in ‘the environment’. Thus, members of the network will carry out research in documentary sources and discuss papers at the network workshops. In addition, they will participate in field trips at particular places which will serve as case studies, thus providing

further material for research. The field trips will also stimulate new perspectives and additional questions. While exploring each ‘place’, the partners will engage with specialists who work in and manage them, and the local communities. Thus, the network’s methodology will enable it to provide new answers to older questions, and also to formulate new questions and approaches to answering them.

Outputs

We aim to produce the following outputs:

  • Edited book of essays on the theme of the network
  • Articles about the methodology and field trips
  • Website with reports on the network’s activities
  • Papers at international conferences on environmental history and area studies
  • Publications by individual network members

 

Events

Events

This is just a brief list of events past and planned.

Please click here for a section with details of each event, including itineraries, essays and photos.

Workshops and Field Trips

St Petersburg and Volkhov Hydroelectric Power Station, March 2013   Completed

St Petersburg and the Solovetskii Islands, the White Sea. 11-20 August 2013   Completed

Lake Baikal in Siberia. 25 July - 4 August 2015   Completed

The Chernobyl Exclusion Zone in Ukraine. 28 June - 2 July 2016

Conferences

Joint Conference in St Petersburg. 26 - 28 November 2015. Title: "Natural Resources, Landscapes and Climate in Russia and Neighbouring Countries"

Details of all events

Contact/Follow the Project

Contact Us

David Moon (Lead Investigator)

Victoria Beale (Network Facilitator)

history-russenv@york.ac.uk

Exploring Russia's Environmental History and Natural Resources

Department of History

University of York

Heslington

York

YO10 5DD

United Kingdom

Follow the Project

Blog

For regular reports on the field trips, workshops and research, and for other Network news, read our Network blog. You can choose to Follow by Email to be notified whenever a new article is posted.

Resources & Publicity

Russian Environmental History - general

reh.spruz.com/  This is the website of an informal 'Russian Environmental History Network'. The website is a means for people to share information and connect with others working in the field. It is maintained by the University of York

environmentalhistory.ru/  This website is devoted to environmental history in Russia and about Russia. The site is bilingual, but oriented mostly towards the Russian public. It is the creation of Andrei Vinogradov (Senior Lecturer in the Dept of History, Elabuga Institute, Kazan’ Federal University) and Maxim Mostovenko (Research Associate, Lab for Historical Research, Surgut State Pedagogical University).

In October 2015 Jon Oldfield and Denis Shaw published their new book, The Development of Russian Environmental Thought. More information.

Environmental History vs. Palaeoenvironmental Science : Two disciplines. Two cultures. The same questions? - Richard Payne environmental_history_vs_Palaeoenvironmental_Science (PDF  , 269kb)

An American Environmental Historian visits Russia's National Parks - Alan Roe national-park-essay-roe (PDF  , 74kb)


Chernobyl

Safety Precautions

Order of the Ministry of Emergencies of Ukraine on November 2, 2011 № 1157 approving the visiting of the [Chernobyl] exclusion zone and zone of unconditional (mandatory) resettlement. official-rules (MS Word  , 69kb)

Health and Safety Briefing for the Network trip to the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone in July 2014, prepared by Victoria Beale in conjunction with Health and Safety specialists. health-and-safety-briefing (MS Word  , 17kb)

Bibliography

We have compiled a bibliography containing a selection of the vast body of writing on Chernobyl from the perspectives of different academic disciplines, journalists, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAE ) and offering contradictory perspectives on this highly contested subject. At the end are some works on the wider context and comparisons of the Chernobyl and Fukushima disasters. We hope that within this list you will be able to find some interesting reading relevant to your particular interest and expertise. Chernobyl Bibliography (MS Word  , 54kb)

Chernobyl Ecology/Evolution papers

Professor Chris D Thomas, an ecologist and evolutionary biologist of the Department of Biology, University of York, has prepared some notes on the controversial work of Anders Pape Møller and Timothy A Mousseau on the biological consequences of the Chernobyl explosion. chernobyl-ecology (MS Word  , 15kb)

Websites

International Atomic Energy Agency webpage on Chernobyl. http://www.iaea.org/newscenter/focus/chernobyl/

The 2006 BBC News Special Report "Chernobyl: 20 years on" - a series of articles and interviews. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/in_depth/europe/2006/chernobyl/default.stm

Film

'Radioactive Wolves', a documentary first shown on the US Public Broadcasting Service on October 19, 2011 http://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/episodes/radioactive-wolves/introduction/7108/  The film can be viewed at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y0wuc8SsMMI

'Chernobyl Uncensored', a documentary published by EleninNWO on 20the April 2013 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dS3WvKKSpKI

'Fukushima Radiation Not Safe!' a documentary by Gofman, a scientist who started out in the AEC and has tussled with the nuclear industry for decades. He lays out how the problem with many of the estimates of nuclear-related fatalities in the Chernobyl zone is that they rely on data from the Atomic Bomb Casualty studies.  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ywKv0dj3UuY&list=PLcp63Rw5m_QcohHCu3jEFSFuEF4Va2HHh&feature=c4-overview-vl


Lake Baikal

Itinerary

The actual itinerary (as it happened) illustrated with photographs, for the network field trip to Lake Baikal 25 July - 4 August 2015 Baikal Programme (with photos) (PDF  , 1,995kb)

The outline itinerary for the network field trip to Lake Baikal 25 July - 4 August 2015 baikal_itinerary (MS Word  , 15kb)

Bibliography

Nick Breyfogle has compiled a brief Bibliography for the Lake Baikal fieldtrip baikal_bibliography (MS Word  , 19kb)

Essays

Baikal Trip - a summary - David Moon ‌

Reflections on the Trip to Lake Baikal - Mark Sokolsky reflections-baikal-sokolsky (MS Word  , 15kb)

An essay on the Baikal Trip - Elena Kochetkova Essay on Baikal by Elena Kochetkova (MS Word  , 35kb)

Reflections on Lake Baikal - Andy Bruno Reflections on Lake Baikal by Andy Bruno (MS Word  , 15kb)

New dams, warming waters, forest fires - Lake Baikal in peril - an article by Bryce Stewart published in The Ecologist. http://www.theecologist.org/News/news_analysis/2985427/new_dams_warming_waters_forest_fires_lake_baikal_in_peril.html

Articles

2.10.15 Climate change could see the end of the world's most unique seals - an article by Stuart Winter in the Express. http://www.express.co.uk/news/nature/609432/Seal-Siberia-Baikal-seal-Russia

8.9.15 Fundraising Appeal: Catastrophic Fires around Lake Baikal, Siberia - a post written by David Moon on the blog "Seeing the Woods" by the Rachel Carson Centre. http://seeingthewoods.org/2015/09/08/fundraising-appeal-catastrophic-fires-around-lake-baikal-siberia/#more-2464

6.9.15 Lake Baikal in danger, scientists warn against dam- a news article in the 'Gulf Times' about threats to Lake Baikal including plans by neighbouring Mongolia to build a dam on the Selenga River, considered the most important water source for the lake. http://www.gulf-times.com/culture/238/details/453886/lake-baikal-in-danger,-scientists-warn-against-dam

10.8.15 World's deepest lake shrouded in smoke, swimmers covered in ash - a news article in 'The Siberian Times'. http://siberiantimes.com/ecology/casestudy/news/n0350-worlds-deepest-lake-shrouded-in-smoke-swimmers-covered-in-ash/

Film

Rossiya tv documentary on the Barguzinskii zapovednik (2011), featuring the Deputy Director for Science, Aleksandr Ananin. http://russia.tv/video/show/brand_id/12725/episode_id/110132/video_id/110132/viewtype/picture/

'Radioactive Wolves', a documentary first shown on the US Public Broadcasting Service on October 19, 2011 http://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/episodes/radioactive-wolves/introduction/7108/  The film can be viewed at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y0wuc8SsMMI


Solovetskii Islands

Essays

Blog: Environment–Water–History: Explorations in Ecological History from Ohio State historian Nicholas Breyfogle. A series of blog posts resulting from the trip. https://u.osu.edu/breyfogle.1/

Papers presented at St Petersburg meeting - Jon Oldfield solovki-essay-oldfield (PDF  , 320kb)

Field Work - David Moon david-moon-solovki-essay (PDF  , 74kb)

On “Being There” and Spatial Dimension to History - Michael David-Fox solovki-essay-dmf (PDF  , 300kb)

Reflections - Mark Sokolksy solovki-essay-sokolsky (PDF  , 81kb)

Our trip to Solovetsky Island -Jack Sharples solovki-essay-sharples (PDF  , 70kb)

My trip to Solovki - Abi Sutton solovki-essay-sutton (PDF  , 941kb)

Solovetsky – from spirituality to coercion. And back... - a photo essay by Ion Von Sucala solovki-essay-sucala (PDF  , 312kb)

Photos

Ph‌otos from the Field Trip (2013)

Websites

Official website of Solovetskii Archipelago

http://мои-соловки.рф/en/  (English)

http://мои-соловки.рф/archipelago/general-information/ (Russian)

Tourist Information Centre Website

http://www.nasolovki.ru/ (Russian)

UNESCO World Heritage Site Website

http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/632/

Map

http://radonez-solovki.ru/img/poselok.jpg


St Petersburg

Essays

St. Petersburg and its backbone: The Neva River as gateway to Europe and the sword of Damocles - an article by Alexei Kraikovski http://www.environmentandsociety.org/arcadia/st-petersburg-and-its-backbone-neva-river-gateway-europe-and-sword-damocles

Websites

http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/540/


Network Publicity

18 April 2016 - Radio New Zealand interview - (Article about the interview below on University of York website) http://www.york.ac.uk/history/news/news/2016/moon-radio-new-zealand/

13 April 2016 - Radio New Zealand interviews David Moon. At 7.10pm New Zealand time (8.10am UK time) on 13 April David Moon was interviewed on the 'Nights' programme on RNZ about his on-the-ground research on Russian environmental history. The programme is available online on http://www.radionz.co.nz/national/programmes/nights/20160413.

4 February 2016 - ‘Place-Based Environmental History Projects in Britain and Russia’, keynote lecture by David Moon at International History Student Conference ‘Usable Pasts’, Dept of History, Higher School of Economics, St Petersburg, Russia. David's Powerpoint presentation: useable-pasts-david-moon (MS PowerPoint  , 10,789kb). Conference details: https://spb.hse.ru/ma/apphist/news/174523691.html

1 December 2015 - From the steppe to the sea: A journey through Russia's troubled environmental history. Article on the University of York's Reseach pages, with link from the University's home page. http://www.york.ac.uk/research/themes/russia-environment/

2 October 2015 - Prof David Moon visits Lake Baikal, Siberia as part of Leverhulme International Network project (Article on the website of the History Department of the University of York, with link from News item on homepage) http://www.york.ac.uk/history/news/news/lake-baikal/

1 October 2015 - World’s largest freshwater lake under threat from climate change and dam (Article on University of York website, with link from News item on homepage, with information about the Network's field trip to Lake Baikal and with quotes from David Moom and Bryce Beukers-Stewart) http://www.york.ac.uk/news-and-events/news/2015/research/lake-baikal/

24 September 2015 - The Network trip to Lake Baikal, and Bryce Beukers-Stewart's article in The Ecologist, are mentioned in the University of York's Staff Digest. https://wiki.york.ac.uk/display/internalnews/Staff+Digest+no.+26+-+24+September+2015 (Access for University of York staff only)

22 September 2015 - David Moon and Catherine Evtuhov will give a talk about their experiences of visiting Lake Baikal with the Network at Georgetown University. http://guevents.georgetown.edu/event/exploring_russias_environmental_history_lake_baikal#.VffkYpcYGi9

17 September 2015 - New dams, warming waters, forest fires - Lake Baikal in peril (Article on the website of the Environment Department of the University of York, with link from News item on homepage) http://www.york.ac.uk/environment/news-events/news/lake-baikal/

1 April 2015 - The History Department at the Higher School of Economics in St Petersburg has posted an announcement (in Russian) about the network on its website http://sh.spb.hse.ru/history/news/146823159.html

4 March 2014 - Network Poster now available (see image at the bottom of the page) network-poster-pdf (PDF  , 2,155kb)

8 January 2014 - Interactions in environmental history - (Presentation showcasing the Network by David Moon at 'York Talks'). Talk handout: York-talk (MS Word  , 28kb) Programme http://www.york.ac.uk/news-and-events/events/public-lectures/spring-2014/york-talk/

6 November 2013 - Exploring Russia’s Environmental History (Article on University of York website) http://www.york.ac.uk/news-and-events/features/russian-environmental-history/

14 October 2013  - Breaking Fresh Ground: Environmental History Takes to the Field (Article on Ohio State University Website) http://artsandsciences.osu.edu/news/breaking-fresh-ground-environmental-history-takes-to-the-field

7 October 2013 - Major Russian Environmental History project website goes live (Article on University of York website) http://www.york.ac.uk/history/news/news/russianenvironmentalhistory/

30 April 2013 - Breaking Fresh Ground: Environmental History Takes a New Direction (Article on Ohio State University Website) http://artsandsciences.osu.edu/news/breaking-fresh-ground-environmental-history-takes-a-new-direction

12 April 2013 - Leverhulme Trust awards International Network Grant for £123,000 for a project led by Professor David Moon (Article on University of York website) http://www.york.ac.uk/history/news/news/archive/moonwinsleverhulmenetworkgrant/