Mike was appointed to a chair in Environment in October 2004. His research work is divided between the Department and the Stockholm Environment Institute at York (SEIY), for whom he works 20% of his time. He also leads the York Centre for Atmosphere/Biosphere Exchange (YCABE), which is a joint initiative between Environment, SEIY, Biology and Chemistry. Prior to coming to York, he was Professor of Environmental Science at the University of Bradford, and from 1975 to 1998 worked as a research fellow, then lecturer and reader at Imperial College London.
|Professor of Environmental Science||University of York|
My research is focussed on the exposure and impacts of air pollutant. I have thirty years of experience of research on the impacts of pollution on vegetation, including work on agricultural crops, trees, grasslands, heathlands and insect pests. This research has involved chamber studies, field manipulation experiments, field surveys and modelling, and studies of the effects of a range of pollutants, including ozone, acid deposition, nitrogen oxides and ammonia. I have experience of the design and interpretation of field surveys of pollutant impacts, including use of biomonitors, application of chemical protectants and surveys of forest health and ground flora, and of interpretation of changes in national distributions of lichens, bryophytes and vascular plants in the context of exposure to air pollution.
In addition to this work on air pollution impacts on the natural environment, I have fifteen years experience of work on assessment of human exposure to air pollution. This research on personal exposure includes studies on CO, NO2 and particulates, in a range of locations, including Mexico City, Athens, Delhi, London, Bradford, Leicester, Northampton, and York. This involves both direct measurement of personal and indoor exposure, and the development and application of probabilistic models of indoor and personal exposure, designed to simulate individual and personal exposure.
My research is strongly focussed on the development of effective management of air pollution, primarily by improving the basis for evaluation of the ecological and health benefits of measures to control emissions to the atmosphere. In particular, I have been actively involved in the development of ecological risk assessment based on the critical load and critical level approach, especially for nitrogen deposition, for ozone, and for heavy metals, and its application in the UK and Europe. I work actively in providing scientific advice to a range of bodies, but especially to the UK Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) and within the UN/ECE Conventional on Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP). My work within the Atmospheric Environment group of SEIY is also involved with assessment of impacts of air pollution in Asia and Africa, and global risk assessments for ozone and nitrogen deposition.
Much of my research is inter-disciplinary and involves research collaborations with a range of other universities and research institutes. At present, I am involved collaborative projects on:- developing flux-based methods for assessing ozone impacts across Europe, assessing the impacts of reduced and oxidised nitrogen deposition, developing and applying critical load methods for metals in soils and freshwaters in the UK, determining the impact of ozone of fluxes of methane and carbon dioxide, assessing the impacts of ozone on upland ecosystems, and modelling personal exposure to air pollution in large office buildings.
with Sylvia Toet (Environment), Phil Ineson and Thorun Helgasson (Biology), University of Newcastle and Centre for Ecology and Hydrology
There is evidence that global background ozone levels are increasing, and it is known that ozone has the potential to alter carbon uptake by vegetation. However, the potential for ozone to alter carbon dioxide and methane fluxes from soils is much less certain, even though it could be an important feedback in global climate change. This project involves investigations of the effects of ozone on methane and carbon dioxide fluxes in wetland mesocosms and a grassland community using experimental facilities in the Tyne valley. As well as direct measurements of fluxes of carbon dioxide and methane, detailed studies will be made on changes in microbial communities using advanced molecular methods.
|2007-2012||Open Air Laboratories (OPAL) (Big Lottery Fund||£350k|
with Carolyn Snell (Social Policy), Steve Cinderby (SEIY), and Piran White and Pierre Delmelle (Environment)
This award is part of a major national project, involving sixteen universities and research organisation, with funding of £11.9 million. OPAL is an England-wide initiative designed to inspire and support communities to explore, study enjoy and protect their local environment. Our role will be to co-ordinate the work in the Yorkshire and Humberside region, focussing on working in four deprived communities to map the local environment, focussing on air and soil pollution and biodiversity, through the use of participatory GIS. We will also collaborate in the delivery of five national projects, on air, soils, water, biodiversity and climate.
Ecological effects of reduced versus oxidised nitrogen deposition; with Leon van den Berg and Malcolm Cresser (Environment), Centre for Ecology and Hydrology and Alterra, Netherlands.
Current critical loads and risk assessment for the effects of nitrogen deposition on sensitive plant communities is based on total nitrogen deposition. However, reduced and oxidised nitrogen deposition have quite different sources and quite different effects. In this project we test the hypothesis that on acid soils in particular, the impacts of reduced nitrogen deposition will be greater than that of oxidised nitrogen deposition. The work involves a mesocosm experiment at York, a field experiment south of Edinburgh and analysis of records of vegetation change in both the Netherlands and the UK.
Modelling of ozone flux and deposition (With Lisa Emberson, SEI).
This contract aims to further develop the application of flux-based risk assessment for ozone, an approach for which we have played a pioneering role. The work aims to further develop model approaches and parameterisation for phenology and soil water deficit, especially for forest ecosystems, and to develop methods to apply flux-based risk assessment to species mixtures, focussing in particular on grassland ecosystems.
|2006-2007||Joint Nature Conservation Committee||£13k|
Impacts of ozone on nature conservation
This review contract aimed to summarise and evaluate the evidence for effects of ozone on communities of high conservation value. In particular, it identified priority species and habitats in the UK that might be at greatest risk of adverse effects of ozone.
|2006-2007||DEFRA||£74k||2006-2009 Effects of ozone on upland vegetation; with Sylvia Toet (Environment), University of Lancaster, University of Newcastle, and Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.|
This project supports a PhD student to work as part of a wider experimental project on the impacts of ozone. We contribute to a long-term experiment in the upper Tyne valley in which an upland grassland community managed to increase biodiversity is subjected to increased ozone concentrations in situ. This is the first such field experiment in the UK, and one of very few field experiments on semi-natural ecosystems in the world. We also are studying responses of wetland mesocosms to ozone in a chamber experiment at Newcastle University.
Indoor Air Quality and Personal Exposure; with Building Research Establishment
This project aims to model the personal exposure of office workers to air pollutants, focussing on nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and particulates. It combines a detailed measurement campaign in different offices within a large building with development and testing of a model to predict the concentrations of pollutants in different types of office and hence the frequency distribution of personal exposures of the building occupants.
Critical loads of metal deposition; with Centre for Ecology and Hydrology
This project aims to develop and apply new approaches to assessing the critical loads for deposition of lead, cadmium, copper and zinc in the UK, and to contribute to critical load-based risk assessment for metal deposition within Europe. Particular emphasis is placed on development of dynamic models to assess the timescales of ecosystem response to changes in metal deposition.
Impacts of nitrogen deposition; with Kevin Hicks (SEIY)
This project was part of a much larger national programme investigating the impacts of nitrogen deposition. The work undertaken related to determining whether long-term changes in the species composition of calcareous grasslands were related to nitrogen deposition, developing methods of assessing site-specific critical loads, and modelling the impacts of nitrogen deposition and management on heathlands over the last century.
Tropsopheric ozone pollution: using stable isotopes; with Phil Ineson (Biology), Lisa Emberson (SEIY), University of Bristol and University of Newcastle.
This recently completed project investigated the use of stable isotopes to enhance our understanding of the deposition, pathways and fate of ozone in plants and soils. We succeeded for the first time in developing new methods to generate 18O labelled ozone with an activity which was high enough to allow us to trace the fate of ozone and environmentally realistic concentrations. The project has provided important new insights into the fate of 18O3 within plants and leaves, and the effects of pre-exposure with ozone in modifying the fate of ozone within leaves.
Edited Books and Contributions to Books
Ashmore MR (in press). Indoor/outdoor relationships. In:- Harrison P & Maynard R (eds.) Indoor Air Pollution. Imperial College Press London.
Ashmore MR, de Vries W, Hettelingh J-P, Hicks K, Posch M, Reinds GJ, Tonneijck F, va Bree L & van Dobben H (in press). Environmental and health impact of air pollution. In: Atlas of Air Pollution (RS Sokhi, ed.), International Union of Air Pollution Control Associations.
Van den Berg LJ & Ashmore MR (in press) Ecotoxicology: nitrogen. In: Encyclopedia of Ecotoxicology.
Emberson LD, Ashmore MR & Murray F (ed.) (2003). Air Pollution Impacts on Crops and Forests. Imperial College Press, London.
Ashmore MR (2003) Air pollution impacts in Europe. In: Air Pollution Impacts on Crops and Forests (LD Emberson, MR Ashmore & F Murray, eds.), pp. 59-88. Imperial College Press London.
Emberson LD, Kuylenstierna JCK & Ashmore MR (2003). Assessing the extent of air pollution impacts in developing countries region. In: Air Pollution Impacts on Crops and Forests (LD Emberson, MR Ashmore & F Murray, eds.), pp.309-336. Imperial College Press, London.
Ashmore MR (2002). Surface ozone effects on vegetation. In: Encyclopaedia of Atmospheric Science (JR Holton, J Pyle & JA Curry, eds.), pp. 1663-1671. Academic Press, London.
Ashmore MR (2002). Effects of oxidants at the whole plant and community level. In: Air Pollution and Plant Life (JNB Bell & Treshow, eds.), pp. 89-118. John Wiley, Chichester.
Ashmore MR (2002). Air pollution guidelines and their role in pollution control policy. In: Air Pollution and Plant Life (JNB Bell & M Treshow, eds.), pp. 417-429. John Wiley, Chichester.
Ashmore MR (2002). The ecological impact of air pollution from roads. In: Wildlife and Roads, the Ecological Impact (B Sherwood, D Cutler & J Burton, eds.), pp. 113-132. Imperial College Press, London.
Ashmore MR (2001). Air pollution. In: Encylopedia of Biodiversity, Volume 1, pp. 119-132. Academic Press, London.
Fuhrer J, Skarby L & Ashmore MR (2000) Ozone effects on vegetation: critical levels. In: Air Quality Guidelines for Europe 2nd edition, pp. 234-238. World Health Organisation, Copenhagen.
Ashmore MR. (1998) Impacts of air pollution on urban vegetation and ecosystems. In: Urban Air Pollution - European Aspects (J Fenger, O Hertel & F Palmgren, eds.), pp. 363-372. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht.
Ashmore MR. (1997) Plants and pollution. In: Plant Ecology (MJ Crawley, ed.) pp. 568-581. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford.
Papers in Refereed Journals
Bignal KL, Ashmore MR, Headley AD, Stewart K, Weigert K (2007). Ecological impacts of air pollution from road transport. Applied Geochemistry, 22, 1265-1271.
Ashmore, M.R., Büker, P., Emberson, L.D., Terry, A.C., Cinderby, S., Toet, S. (2007) Modelling ozone flux and deposition to grassland communities across Europe. Environmental Pollution 146, 659-670.
Pleijel H, Danielsson H, Emberson LD, Ashmore MR & Mills G (2007). Ozone risk assessment for agricultural crops in Europe: further development of stomatal flux and flux-response relationships for European wheat and potato. Atmospheric Environment, 41, 3022-3040.
Simpson D, Emberson LD, Ashmore MR, Tuovinen J-P (2007). A comparison of two different approaches for mapping potential ozone damage to vegetation. Environmental Pollution, 146, 715-725.
Emberson, L.D., Büker, P., Ashmore, M.R. (2007) Assessing the risk caused by ground level ozone to European forest trees: a case study in pine, beech and oak across different climate regions. Environmental Pollution, 147, 454-466.
Harmens H, Mills G, Emberson LD, Ashmore MR. (2007). Implications of climate change for the stomatal flux of ozone: a case study for winter wheat. Environmental Pollution (in press).
Tuovinen J-P, Simpson S, Emberson L.D., Ashmore, M.R., Gerosa G. (2007). Robustness of modelled ozone exposures and doses. Environmental Pollution, in press
Phoenix GK, Hicks WK, Cinderby S, Kuylenstierna JCI, Stock WD, Dentener FJ, Giller KE, Austin AT, Lefroy RDB, Gimeno BS, Ashmore MR & Ineson P (2006). Atmospheric nitrogen deposition in world biodiversity hotspots: the need for a greater global perspective in assessing N deposition impacts. Global Change Biology, 12, 470-476.
Ashmore, M.R., Toet, S., Emberson, L.D. (2006). Ozone – a significant threat to future world food production? New Phytologist, 170, 201-204.
Dimitroulopoulou C, Ashmore MR, Hill MTR, Byrne MA, Kinnersley RP (2006). INDAIR: a probabilistic model of indoor air pollution in UK homes. Atmospheric Environment, 40, 6362-6379.
Power SA, Green ER, Barker CG, Bell JNB & Ashmore MR (2006). Ecosystem recovery: heathland response to a reduction in nitrogen deposition. Global Change Biology, 12, 1241-1252.
Thwaites RH, Ashmore MR, Morton AJ & Pakeman RJ (2006). The effects of tropospheric ozone on the species dynamics of calcareous grassland. Environmental Pollution, 144, 500-509.
Hall JR, Ashmore MR, Fawehinimi J, Jordan C, Lofts S, Shotbolt L, Spurgeon DJ, Svendsen C & Tipping E (2006). Developing a critical load approach for national risk assessments of atmospheric metal deposition. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 25, 883-890.
Mohammadyan M & Ashmore MR (2005). Personal exposure and indoor PM2.5 concentrations in an urban population. Indoor and Built Environment, 14, 313-320.
Ashmore MR (2005). Assessing the future global impacts of ozone on vegetation. Plant Cell and Environment, 28, 949-964.
Smart SM, Ashmore MR, Hornung M, Scott WA, Fowler D, Dragosits U, Howard DC, Sutton MA & Famulari D (2004). Detecting the signal of atmospheric N deposition in national-scale vegetation change. Water Air and Soil Pollution, Focus 4, 197-205..
Lai HK, Kendall M, Ferrier H, Lindup I, Alm S, Hanninen O, Jantunen M, Mathus P, Colvile R, Ashmore MR, Cullinan P & Niuewenhuijsen MJ (2004). Personal exposures and microenvironmental concentrations of PM2.5, VOC, NO2 and CO in Oxford, UK. Atmospheric Environment, 38, 6399-6410.
Power SA, Ashmore MR, Terry AC, Caporn SJM, Pilkington MG, Wilson DB, Barker CG, Carroll HA, Cresswell N, Green ER & Heil GW (2004). Linking field experiments to long-term simulation of impacts of nitrogen deposition on heathlands and moorlands. Water Air and Soil Pollution, Focus 4, .
Terry AC, Ashmore MR, Power SA, Allchin EA & Heil GW (2004). Modelling the impacts of elevated nitrogen deposition on Calluna dominated ecosystems in the UK. Journal of applied Ecology. 41, 897-909.
Tuovinen J-P, Ashmore MR, Emberson LD & Simpson D (2004). Testing and improving the EMEP ozone deposition module. Atmospheric Environment, 38, 2373-1385.
Coyle M, Fowler D & Ashmore MR (2003). Implications of increasing tropospheric background ozone concentrations for vegetation. Atmospheric Environment, 37, 153-154.
Simpson D, Tuovinen J-P, Emberson L & Ashmore MR (2003). Characteristics of an ozone deposition module II: Sensitivity analysis. Water Air and Soil Pollution, 143, 123-137.
Tipping E, Rieuwerts J, Pan G, Ashmore MR, Lofts S, Hill MTR, Farago ME & Thornton I (2003). The solid-solution partitioning of metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) in upland soils of England and Wales. Environmental Pollution, 125, 213-225.
Power SA & Ashmore MR (2002). Responses of fen and fen-meadow communities to ozone. New Phytologist, 156, 399-408.
Drogoudi P & Ashmore MR (2002). Effects of elevated ozone on yield and carbon allocation in strawberry cultivars differing in developmental stage. Phyton, 42, 45-53.
Stribley GH & Ashmore MR (2002). Quantitative changes in twig growth pattern of young woodland beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in relation to climate and ozone pollution over 10 years. Forest Ecology and Management, 157, 191-204.
Emberson LD, Ashmore MR, Murray F, Kuylenstierna JCI, Percy KE, Izuta T, Zheng Y, Shimizu H, Sheu BH, Kiu CP, Agrawal M, Wahid A, Abdel-Latif NM, van Tienhoven M, de Bauer LI & Domingos M (2001). Impacts of air pollution in developing countries. Water Air and Soil Pollution, 130, 107-118.
Hill MTR, Dimitroulopoulou C, Ashmore MR & Batty K (2001). Measurement and modelling of short-term variations in particle concentrations in UK homes. Indoor and Built Environment, 506,
Dimitroulopoulou C, Ashmore MR & Byrne MA (2001). Modelling the contribution of passive smoking to exposure to PM10 in the UK. Indoor and Built Environment, 10, 209-213.
Simpson D, Tuovinen J-P, Emberson LD & Ashmore MR (2001). Characteristics of an ozone deposition module. Water Air & Soil Pollution: Focus 1, 253-262.
Power SA, Barker CG, Allchin EA, Ashmore MR & Bell JNB (2001). Habitat management – a tool to modify ecosystem impacts of nitrogen deposition? The Scientific World, 1, 714-721.
Emberson LD, Ashmore MR, Simpson D, Tuovinen J-P & Cambridge HM (2001). Modelling and mapping ozone deposition in Europe. Water Air & Soil Pollution, 113, 271-280.
Wahid A, Milne E, Shamsi SRA, Ashmore MR & Marhsall FM (2001).Effects of oxidants on soyban growth and yield in the Pakistan Punjab. Environmental Pollution, 113, 271-280.
Drogoudi PD & Ashmore MR (2001). 14-C allocation of flowering and deblossomed strawberry in response to ozone. New Phytologist, 152, 455-461.
Dimitroulopoulou C, Ashmore MR, Byrne MA & Kinnersley RP (2001). Modelling of indoor exposure to nitrogen dioxide in the UK. Atmospheric Environment, 35, 269-279.
Tuovinen J-P, Simpson D, Mikkelsen TN, Emberson LD, Ashmore MR, Aurela M, Cambridge HM, Hovmand MF, Jensen NO, Laurila T, Pilegaard K & Ro-Poulsen H (2001). Comparisons of measured and modelled ozone deposition to forests in Northern Europe. Water Air and Soil Pollution, Focus 1, 263-274.
Nightingale JA, Maggs, Cullinan P, Donnelly LE, Rogers DF, Kinnersley RP, Fan Chung K, Barnes PJ, Ashmore MR & Newman-Taylor A (2000). Airway inflammation after controlled exposure to diesel particulates. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 162, 161-166.
Emberson LD, Wieser G & Ashmore (2000). Modelling of stomatal conductance and ozone flux of Norway spruce: comparison with field data. Environmental Pollution, 109, 393-402.
Emberson LD, Ashmore MR, Cambridge HM, Simpson D & Tuovinen J-P (2000). Modelling stomatal ozone flux across Europe. Environmental Pollution, 109, 403-413.
Ashmore MR, Batty K, Machin F, Guliver J, Grosshinho A, Elliott P, Tate J, Bell M, Livesley E & Briggs D (2000). Effects of traffic management and transport mode on the exposure of schoolchilden to carbon monoxide. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 65, 49-57.
Drogoudi PD & Ashmore MR (2000). Does elevated ozone have differing effects in flowering and deblossomed strawberry? New Phytologist, 147, 561-569.
Ling KA & Ashmore MR (1999). Influence of tree health on ground flora in the Chiltern Beechwoods, England. Forest Ecology and Management, 119, 77-88.
Power SA, Ashmore MR, Cousins DA & Shepphard LJ (1998). Effects of nitrogen deposition on the stress sensitivity of Calluna vulgaris. New Phytologist, 138, 663-673.
Ashmore MR & Marshall FM (1998). Ozone impacts on agriculture: an issue of global concern. Advances in Botanical Research, 29, 31-52.
Rieuwerts JS, Thornton I, Farago ME & Ashmore MR (1998). Factors affecting metal availability in soils: preliminary investigations for the development of a critical loads approach for metals. Chemical Speciation and Bioavailability 10, 61-75.
Vellopoulou AV & Ashmore MR (1998). Personal exposures to carbon monoxide in the city of Athens: 1. Commuters’ exposures. Environment International, 24, 713-720.
Power SA, Ashmore MR & Cousins DA (1998). Impacts and fate of experimentally enhanced nitrogen deposition on a British lowland health. Environmental Pollution, 102, 27-34.
Maggs R & Ashmore MR (1998). Growth and yield responses of Pakistan rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars to O3 and NO2. Environmental Pollution, 103, 159-170.
Rieuwerts J, Thornton I, Farago M & Ashmore MR (1998). Quantifying the influence of soil properties on the solubility of metals by predictive modelling of secondary data. Chemical Speciation and Bioavailability, 10, 83-94.
Uren SC, Ainsworth N, Power SA, Cousins DA, Huxedurp LM & Ashmore MR (1997). Long-term effects of ammonium sulphate on Calluna vulgaris. Journal of applied Ecology, 34, 208-216.
Fuhrer J, Skarby L & Ashmore MR (1997). Critical levels for ozone effects on vegetation in Europe. Environmental Pollution, 97, 91-106.
Wahid A, Shamsi SRA, Bell JNB & Ashmore MR (1997). Effects of ambient air pollution on the yield of some wheat and rice varieties grown in open-top chambers in Lahore, Pakistan. Acta. Scienca (Pakistan), 72, 141-152.
Major Co-authored and Co-Edited Reports
Quantification of health impacts of airborne particulates (PDF , 627kb)
Morrissey T, Ashmore MR, Emberson LD, Cinderby S & Buker P (2007). The Impacts of Ozone on Nature Conservation. JNCC Report 403, Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough.
Bignal KL, Ashmore MR & Power SA (2004). The Ecological Impact of Diffuse Air Pollution from Road Transport. English Nature Research Report, no. 580. English Nature, Peterborough.
Cunha A, Power SA, Ashmore MR, Green PRS, Haworth BJ & Bobbink R (2002). Whole ecosystem nitrogen manipulation: a review. JNCC Report, Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, ISSN 0963-8091.
Hornung M, Ashmore MR & Sutton M (2002). Environmental impacts of ammonia on semi-natural habitats, Chapter 3 of ‘Ammonia in the UK’. DEFRA, London.
Fowler D, Coyle M, ApSimon H, Ashmore MR, Bareham SA, Battarbee RW, Derwent RG, Erisman J-W, Goodwin J, Grennfelt P, Hornung M, Irwin J, Jenkins A, Metcalfe SE, Ormerod SJ, Reynolds B & Woodin S (2001). Transboundary Air Pollution: Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-Level Ozone in the UK. Report of the National Expert Group on Transboundary Air Pollution. Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs, London.
Emberson LD, Simpson S, Tuovinen J-P, Ashmore MR & Cambridge HM (2000). Toward a model of ozone deposition and stomatal uptake over Europe. Research Note 42, Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo. ISSN 0332-9879.
Marshall FM, Ashmore MR & Hinchcliffe F. (1997). A Hidden Threat to Food Production: Air Pollution and Agriculture in the Developing World. Gatekeeper Series no. 73. International Institute for Environment and Development, London.
Derwent RG, Bull KR, Allott TEH, ApSimon HM, Ashmore MR, Battarbee RW, Campbell GW, Fowler D, Gough C, Hall J, Hornung M, Ineson P, Jenkins A, Johnstone D, Kuylenstierna J, Ludlow A, Metcalfe SE, Murlis J, Ormerod S, Rundle S, Whyatt D & Yates T. (1997). Mapping and Modelling Environmental Acidification in the United Kingdom. Department of the Environment, London.
Ashmore MR, Bates JW, Bell JNB, Brown M, Bull KR, Campbell G, Cape JN, Caporn SJM, Davison AW, Dyke HM, Freer-Smith PH, Lucas PW, Sanders-Mills G, Smith R & Stedman J (1997). Critical Levels of Air Pollutants for the United Kingdom. Department of the Environment, London.
Fowler D, Anderson R, Ashmore MR, Bower JS, Cape JN, Cox RA, Coyle M, Derwent RG, Dollard GJ, Harrison RM, Hewitt CN, Jenkin M, Lee DS, Maynard RL, Penkett SA, Smith RI, Stedman JR, Weston KJ, Williams ML & Woods PJ (1997), Ozone in the United Kingdom 1995. Department of the Environment, London.
Green PRS, Ashmore MR, Power SA & Bobbink R (1997). Whole Ecosystem Manipulation: a review. English Nature, Peterborough.
Major Papers in Non-Refereed Conference Proceedings
Song WW & Ashmore MR (2007). Size distribution of commuters’ exposure to airborne particulate matter in buses in the UK. In: Air Pollution XV, pp. 487-496. WIT Press, Southampton.
Ashmore MR, Bell M, Chen H, Dimitroulopoulou C, Namdeo A & Terry AC (2005). Modelling human exposure to air pollution in urban populations. In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Urban Air Quality, Valencia.
Batty K & Ashmore MR (2003). Lower threshold ozone exposures for effects on roots than shoots in wetland species. In: Background Papers, UN/ECE workshop on Establishing Ozone Critical Levels II; Gothenburg (in press).
Fuhrer J, Ashmore MR, Mills G, Hayes F & Davison AW (2003). Critical levels for semi-natural vegetation. In: Background Papers, UN/ECE workshop on Establishing Ozone Critical Levels II; Gothenburg (in press).
Bobbink R, Ashmore MR, Braun S, Fluckiger W & van der Wyngaert IJJ (2003). Empirical nitrogen critical loads for natural and semi-natural ecosystems: 2002 update. Background document for Expert Workshop on Empirical Critical Loads for Nitrogen on (Semi-)natural Ecosystems. In: Empirical Critical Loads for Nitrogen (B Achermann & R Bobbink, eds.), pp. 43-170. Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests and Landscape, Berne.
Ashmore MR Colgan A, Hill MTR, Pan G, Rieuwerts J & Tipping E (2000). Modelling and microbial toxicity of pore-water free-ion concentrations of metals in upland soils. In: Proceedings of UN/ECE Ad-hoc International Expert Group on Effects-based Critical Limits, Bratislava (J Curlik, P Sefcik, Z Viechova, eds).
Davison AW, Ashmore MR, Bender J, Chappelka A & Weigel H (1999). Critical levels for semi-natural vegetation. In: ‘Critical Levels for Ozone – Level II (J Fuhrer & B Achermann, eds.), pp. 73-76. Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests and Landscapes, Berne.
Ashmore MR & Emberson LD (1999) Development of flux models for level II mapping of ozone. In: Critical Levels for Ozone – Level II (J Fuhrer & B Achermann, eds.), pp. 37-40. Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests and Landscape, Berne.
Davison AW, Ashmore MR, Bender J, Chappelka A & Weigel H (1999). Critical levels for semi-natural vegetation. In: Critical Levels for Ozone – Level II (J Fuhrer & B Achermann, eds.), pp.73-76. Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests and Landscape, Berne.
Ball GR, Mills GE, Hayes F, Ashmore MR, Emberson LD, Power SA, Bungener P, Nussbaum & Fuhrer J (1999). Can artificial neural networks be used to identify ozone sensitivity in natural vegetation?. In: Critical Levels for Ozone – Level II (J Fuhrer & B Achermann, eds.), pp. 261-264. Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests and the Landscape, Berne.
Emberson LD, Ashmore MR, Cambridge HM, Simpson D & Tuovinen JP (1999). Modelling ozone flux and deposition across Europe. In: Critical Levels for Ozone – Level II (J Fuhrer & B Achermann, eds.), pp. 289-292. Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests and the Landscape, Berne.
Emberson LD, Wieser G & Ashmore MR (1999) Comparison of measured and modelled stomatal conductance and ozone flux for Norway spruce. In: Critical Levels for Ozone – Level II (J Fuhrer & B Achermann, eds.), pp. 293-296. Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests and the Landscape, Berne.
Ashmore MR (1999) Assessment of personal exposure to air pollution. In: Exposure Assessment in the Evaluation of Risk to Human Health; Report of a Workshop for Government/Research Council Initiative on Risk assessment and Toxicology (P Harrison, ed.), pp. 26-29. Institute of Environment and Health, Leicester.
Rieuwerts JS, Farago ME, Thornton I, Ashmore MR, Fowler D, Nemitz E, Hall J, Kodz D, Lawlor A & Tipping E (1999). Critical loads of metals in UK soils: an overview of current research. In: Geochemistry of the Earth’s Surface; Proceedings of 5th International Conference (H Armannsson, ed.), pp. 223-226. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam.
Akbar S & Ashmore MR (1997). Particulate air pollution and respiratory morbidity in Delhi, and its implications. In: Proceedings of the World Congress on Air Pollution in Developing Countries, Costa Rica. Volume II, pp. 52-58. Imprenta Nacional of Costa Rica, San Jose.
Ashmore MR (1997). Defining and applying critical levels for ozone and nitrogen dioxide. In: Proc. International Seminar on Transport and Effects of Acidic Substances (Y Kohno, ed.), pp. 175-183. Central Institute of Electric Power Institute, Tokyo.