- Head of Department
- Deputy Head
With over forty members of staff, we are one of the largest and most active English departments in the country.
We are also a very international department, with colleagues from Canada, France, Ireland, Italy, The Netherlands, New Zealand, South Africa and the USA.
Nicoletta Asciuto joined the department at York in 2016 after an IASH Postdoctoral Research Fellowship (University of Edinburgh). She completed her PhD in English Literature at Durham University in 2015 with a thesis on T. S. Eliot’s light and dark imagery in his poetry and drama and she is currently writing a book on electric light and the poetic imagination.
BA (Natal), MA, PhD (Cantab), FBA
Derek Attridge was educated in South Africa and England, and has taught in England, Scotland, France, and the U.S.A. Among his research interests are South African literature, Joyce, deconstruction and literary theory, and the performance of poetry.
Derwent College D/J/102
and D/J/019A (Head of Department's Office)
Tel: 01904 323354
BA (Natal), MA (Cape Town), PhD (Texas)
Head of Department
David Attwell joined the Department in January 2006 as Professor of Modern Literature from his role as Head of English at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg. He has published widely in the fields of anglophone African literature, South African literature, and postcolonial studies. His most well-known work is on J.M. Coetzee.
BA (Oxon), MA (York), Phd (York)
Henry Bainton's research focuses on the Latin and French literature of the High Middle Ages, and on historical writing in particular. He is especially interested in the interface between literary culture and documentary culture, and in the role of performance across a wide range of textual practices.
Derwent College D/J/200
Tel: 01904 324717
MA (Cantab), PhD (Birmingham)
John Bowen joined the Department in 2005 from Keele University, where he was Professor of Modern English Literature. His main research area is nineteenth-century fiction, in particular the work of Dickens, but he has also written on modern poetry and fiction, as well as essays on literary theory.
Tel: 01904 659784
MA (Oxon), FSA
After retirement from teaching Anglo-Saxon at York, Sid Bradley has continued as co-editor of the Copenhagen journal Grundtvig-Studier, published a book on the 19th-century Danish poet, historian and theologian N. F. S. Grundtvig and articles on Grundtvig’s reception of Anglo-Saxondom, and lectured on this subject, most recently in Denmark, America and Ireland.
Derwent College D/J/215A
Tel: 01904 324572
MA, MLitt (Cantab)
Jonathan Brockbank has worked short-term contracts for the Department since 1985, lecturing and teaching on various modules including Approaches to Literature, Shakespeare and His Contemporaries, Romantics, Seventeenth Century & Victorians. His research interests include Ruskin and Morris, Cold War literature and films; Westerns and Noirs; British Writing between and during the world wars, especially Socialist and Feminist writers; traditional music and song of Britain and the USA, and Godzilla.
Derwent College D/J/215B
Tel: 01904 323356
BA, DPhil (York)
Trev Broughton joined the department from the Centre for Women's Studies. Her current research interests include Life Writing in the nineteenth century (letters, diaries, autobiography, biography), and the construction of masculinities in Victorian culture.
Derwent College D/L/147
Tel: 01904 323337
BA (Bristol), DPhil (Oxon)
Judith Buchanan is Professor of Film and Literature. Her research interests are currently concentrated on: Shakespearean performance histories (and presents) on stage, on screen and in other media; silent cinema amongst the other arts; the ways in which cinema and literature reflect and refract each other's mechanisms, processes and cultural charge. She regularly mounts silent film shows through her project 'Silents Now'.
Derwent College D/J/112
Tel: 01904 323360
BA (Dublin), PhD (Cantab)
Matthew Campbell has written widely on poetry from the late eighteenth century up to the present day. He arrived in York as Professor of Modern Literature in 2011 and he teaches Victorian, Modern and Irish literature. Recent publications include a book about nineteenth-century poetry from and about Ireland and various articles and essays on Irish poetry and poetics.
King's Manor K/284
Tel: 01904 324975 firstname.lastname@example.org
MA (U. di Pisa; SNS Pisa), PhD (SNS Pisa)
Michele Campopiano's interests include: editing of medieval Latin texts, medieval historiography and geography, cultures and literatures of medieval Italy, Franciscan cultural traditions and relationships between Europe and the Middle East in the Middle Ages. He is a member of the research team 'La création d'un mythe d'Alexandre le Grand dans les littératures européennes (XIe siècle - début XVIe siècle)'.
Derwent College D/J/107
Tel: 01904 324216 email@example.com
BA (Newcastle), MA, PhD (Leeds)
Claire Chambers joined the Department in October 2012 after eight years as a lecturer in the School of Cultural Studies at Leeds Metropolitan University. Her research and teaching interests include religion and literature; writing from South Asia, the Arab world, and their diasporas; multicultural textualities in Britain; and literary representations of British Muslims.
Derwent College D/J/227
Tel: 01904 324573 firstname.lastname@example.org
K P Clarke
MA, MPhil (Dubl), MA (Cantab), MA DPhil (Oxon)
Kenneth Clarke joined the department in 2012 as Anniversary Research Lecturer from Pembroke College, Cambridge, where he was the Keith Sykes Research Fellow in Italian Studies, as well as an Affiliated Lecturer in the Department of Italian. Previously, he taught Old and Middle English Literature as College Lecturer at Brasenose College, Oxford. His research interests are in Chaucer and the Italian Trecento; Boccaccio; Dante; book history; word and image.
Derwent College D/L/140
Tel: 01904 324217
Royal Literary Fund Writing Fellow
Mary Colson will provide a free and confidential consultation service to help students improve their writing. Mary has written over 50 non-fiction books for children on topics ranging from Einstein, secret codes and the ozone layer to Toni Morrison, sports poetry and Beyoncé. A graduate of the MA in Creative Writing at UEA, she has written for various publications and literary websites including The Times. She delivers creative writing workshops in schools all over the country and regularly showcases new work at festivals. She also copy edits academic journals in English and French. For her next projects, she is working on a non-fiction book for adults, a children's novel set just after WWII and a script about the slave trader John Newton and the poet William Cowper.
Victoria Coulson came to York from a Research Fellowship at Selwyn College, Cambridge. Her interests lie in nineteenth- and early twentieth-century American and British literature, in particular narrative representation, and in the material culture of the period.
Derwent College D/L/148
Tel: 01904 323068 email@example.com
MA, PhD (Cantab)
Brian Cummings joined the Department as Anniversary Professor in October 2012, after teaching at Cambridge and Sussex, where he co-founded the Centre for Early Modern Studies. He works on Shakespeare and Renaissance literature, and also writes on the history of religion, the history of the book, modern poetry, and the philosophy of literature. He recently edited the Book of Common Prayer, and is currently writing on Shakespeare and religion.
Derwent College D/J/101
Tel: 01904 323357
BA (Cantab), MPhil (Oxon), PhD (Cantab)
Tania Demetriou came to York in 2011 from a Research Fellowship at St John's College, Oxford. Her teaching and research interests include early modern literature and classical reception, Shakespeare, the history of reading and of scholarship, translation, and the epic.
Mary Fairclough joined the Department in 2012 from the University of Huddersfield. Her research interests lie in the interrelation of literary, scientific and political discourse during the period 1750-1850, in particular eighteenth-century theories of communication, print culture and the public sphere, and the science of electricity.
BA (Oberlin College), MA, PhD (Chicago)
Honorary Visiting Professor
Kevin Gilmartin joins the Department as a regular Autumn Term visiting professor from the California Institute of Technology. His research interests include Romantic literature, the politics of literary culture, the history of the periodical press and of print culture, and intersections between literary expression and public activism.
Derwent College D/J/007
Tel: 01904 324569
MA, MPhil, PhD (Cantab)
Alice Hall studied at Cambridge and worked at Paris Diderot University and La Sorbonne Nouvelle before coming to York. Her research interests are in contemporary and global literature, particularly the areas of literature and the body, cultural representations of disability, autobiographical fiction, memory, and medical humanities.
Derwent College D/J/001
Tel: 01904 323343
BA (Cantab), MA (Oxon)
Hugh Haughton works in the field of modernism, modern poetry and poetics; the literature of nonsense; letters and life-writing; and twentieth-century Irish literature. He is the author of The Poetry of Derek Mahon (OUP, 2007), the first full-scale study of a major contemporary Irish poet, as well as numerous essays on twentieth-century poetry.
Tel: 01904 323366
Nicholas R. Havely
MA, BPhil (Oxon)
Nicholas R. Havely has principal research interests in late medieval literature (especially Dante, Boccaccio and Chaucer) and in English-Italian literary relations. He has recently published two edited collections of essays on reception of Dante in the nineteenth century (2011 and 2012) and is currently completing a study of Dante's British Public, from the Fourteenth Century to the Present (forthcoming 2014).
Adam Kelly came to York in 2013 after two years as a postdoctoral fellow at Harvard University. His research and teaching interests include American literature, contemporary fiction and film, literary theory, and the history of ideas. He is currently writing a book on the aesthetics and politics of sincerity in twenty-first-century American fiction.
Derwent College D/J/126
Tel: 01904 323363
BA, MA, PhD (London)
Kevin Killeen received his PhD from Birkbeck, University of London and, before coming to York, lectured at Birkbeck, the University of Reading and the University of Leeds. He has research interests in early modern science, the seventeenth century Bible and its political uses, and in early modern poetry. He is the organiser of the Thomas Browne Seminar.
Alexandra Kingston-Reese came to York in 2016 from the University of Sydney. Her research interests include contemporary Anglophone literature, critical theory, aesthetics, poetry, and visual art. She is currently writing a book on the 21st-century novel and ethico-political disturbances to aesthetic experience.
Kings Manor K/G73
Tel: 01904 324974
BA (Cantab), MA, PhD (York)
Emma Major studied at Queens' College, Cambridge, before doing an MA and PhD at the Department of English and Centre for Eighteenth-Century Studies at the University of York. She has research interests in debates about religion, patriotism and gender 1740-1860.
Michael McCluskey joined the department in October 2016. He received his PhD in English from University College London (UCL) in 2011. From 2012-13 he was a Research Fellow at Harvard University working with metaLAB (at) Harvard, a digital humanities research centre. From 2013-16 he was a British Academy Postdoctoral Fellow in the Department of English at UCL. He has an MA in English from UCL and an EdM in English and Education from Harvard.
Kings Manor K/184
Tel: 01904 323920
BA, MA (Toronto), MPhil, DPhil (Oxon)
Nicola McDonald has research interests ranging from cannibalism to confessional discourse, from women's literacy to the post-modern middle ages. Her current research encompasses the cultural audacity of Middle English popular romance, and mulier ludens, seeking to inject some levity into our understanding of the complexity of medieval women's lives by studying the text-based social games that women played.
Kings Manor K/G74
Tel: 01904 324986
MA, PhD (Cantab)
Jon Mee came to York from Warwick after a post as Professor of Literature of the Romantic Period at Oxford. He works across the eighteenth-century and Romantic periods, with a special interest in Austen, Barbauld, Blake, Coleridge, Hays, Hazlitt, Keats, Wollstonecraft, and Wordsworth, among others. Jon also teaches and writes on Charles Dickens. He has a long-standing interest in radical responses to the French Revolution and has just finished a book called Print, Publicity, and Popular Radicalism in the 1790s: The Laurel of Liberty, to be published by Cambridge University Press in 2016. Jon is currently PI on a project called 'Networks of Improvement' that looks at the roles of clubs and societies in the creation of literary culture and the wider circulation of knowledge in the period 1760-1840. A special issue of the Journal of Eighteenth-Century Studies related to the project will appear at the end of 2015. He is Director of the Centre for Eighteenth-Century Studies.
Derwent College D/J/127
Tel: 01904 323346
BA (Oxon), DPhil (Sussex)
S.M.J. Minta originally specialized in French literature of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, with particular reference to the development of lyric poetry in the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance, and is currently working on a political biography of Byron, and has recently published a number of articles and essays on Byron and Greek politics.
Tel: 01904 323366
MA (New Zealand and Oxon)
A. David Moody is currently completing a 3-volume critical biography of Ezra Pound, Ezra Pound: Poet. A Portrait of the Man & His Work (Oxford University Press). Vol. 1 was published in 2007 and vol. 2 in 2014; vol. 3 wil be published in autumn 2015.
Kings Manor K/107
Tel: 01904 323909
Linne R. Mooney
MA, PhD (Toronto), FSA
Linne R. Mooney is our Professor of Medieval English Palaeography, and active in both the Department of English and Related Literature and the Centre for Medieval Studies, based at King's Manor. Her research focuses on the dissemination of late medieval English literature in manuscript and early print.
Derwent College D/J/006
Tel: 01904 324219
Licence, Maîtrise (Université Rennes 2),
MA (University College Dublin), PhD (Queen's University Belfast)
Emilie Morin has research interests in modern and contemporary drama, twentieth-century British and Irish literature, European modernism and the historical avant-garde.
Riona Nic Congail
BA, PhD (University College Dublin)
Ríona Nic Congáil is an Irish Research Council Marie Curie ELEVATE Research Fellow. Her three-year fellowship is held between the Department of English and Related Literature, University of York, and the Irish Department at St Patrick’s College, Drumcondra (Dublin City University). Her research project is entitled ‘Nation, Migration and Empire: Irish Childhood in Britain, 1841-1921’. Her broader interests include the Irish language, Irish women’s writing in Irish and English, and children’s studies.
Kings Manor K/173A
Tel: 01904 324992
BA (Trinity), PhD (York)
Alison O'Byrne has research interests in the long eighteenth century, with a particular focus on debates about and representations of the city. She has written articles on the building and representation of Westminster Bridge and on pedestrianism in early nineteenth-century London. She is currently completing a book provisionally titled The Art of Walking in London: Representing the Eighteenth-Century City.
Tel: 01904 323366
MA (Cantab), PhD (Columbia), FSA
Graham Parry has written a number of books about the cultural history of the seventeenth century, and in recent years turned to the study of the antiquaries of early modern England. He also has strong interests in Victorian cultural life, and is active in Ruskin’s Guild of St George, the Pugin Society, and the Sydney Smith Association. In addition, he is much involved in the activities of the York Bibliographical Society.
contact c/o Centre for Medieval Studies
Derek Pearsall is one of the founders of York's Centre for Medieval Studies and a Professor here until 1986. He has returned to York since his retirement as Gurney Professor of English at Harvard University in the USA. He is actively involved with research seminars and visiting lectures at the Centre for Medieval Studies, and informally consults with students about their work in Middle English literature and manuscript studies.
contact c/o Department of English and Related Literature
Honorary Visiting Professor
Adam Phillips is an author and a psychoanalyst in private practice in London. He is the author of twelve highly praised books on literature, history, philosophy, child psychology, biography and psychoanalysis. Adam makes three visits a year, during which he gives lectures and participates in seminars, and is available for individual consultation.
Derwent College D/L/141
Tel: 01904 323355
BA (Dublin), MA, PhD (York)
Bryan Radley’s current work is on cultural identity, genre, and place-making in contemporary Irish-American fiction. Other research interests include theories of comedy and twentieth- and twenty-first century Irish literature, in particular the novels of John Banville.
Derwent College D/J/222
Tel: 01904 324716
BA (Valparaiso), MA, PhD (Chicago)
Lawrence Rainey has written extensively on the classic works of Anglo-American modernism, including monographs on Ezra Pound and T. S. Eliot. He is currently at work on a cultural history of the typist, secretary, or stenographer as depicted in film and fiction from 1890 to 1940, a study that examines nearly three hundred films and novels.
BA (NZ), MA (Auckland), BPhil (Oxon), DUniv (York), FRSE
Felicity Riddy has published extensively on a wide range of subjects relating to the literature and culture of England and Scotland in the later Middle Ages.
Rosa M. Rodríguez Porto
Derwent College D/J/226
Tel: 01904 323321
BA, MA and PhD (Santiago de Compostela)
Postdoctoral research fellow, Centre for Medieval Literature
An art historian by training, Rosa M. Rodríguez Porto has extensively worked on the illuminated books made for the kings and queens of Castile (1284-1369), on medieval Iberian courtly culture and on the Classical tradition in the Middle Ages. Her research project at the Centre for Medieval Literature is focused on the study of Late Medieval Iberian historiographical production, paying special attention to the uses of images in the construction of historical discourse, both in terms of the illustration and layout of the preserved manuscripts and in what concerns the imagery evoked while in reading.
Tel: 01904 631484
BA (Cantab), MA (Harvard), MA (Cantab), PhD (Harvard)
John Roe's main research areas are Shakespeare, and English and Italian Renaissance literature. His publications include The Poems of Shakespeare (an edition) and Shakespeare and Machiavelli. He has a keen interest in modern American poetry and has also contributed 'John Berryman' to the Continuuum 'Great Shakespeareans' series. An abiding passion is the work of the novelist Anthony Powell, and he is a trustee of the Anthony Powell Society. Following his retirement from York he has taught in Germany at the University of the Saarland.
Derwent College D/J/223
Tel: 01904 323339 firstname.lastname@example.org
BA (York), MPhil, DPhil (Oxon)
Richard Rowland joined the department in 2001, after teaching for more than a decade at the University of Oxford. He has edited plays by Marlowe, Chapman and Jonson, and also works on the reception and reinvention of ancient drama.
King's Manor K/G74
Tel: 01904 324986
BA (Oxon), MA, PhD (York)
Deborah Russell came to York from a lectureship at Queen's University Belfast. Her research interests focus on Gothic fiction, with a particular emphasis on women's writing and discourses of national identity. She also works on Romantic-era theatre, looking at melodrama, spectacle, and the politics of adaptation.
Derwent College D/L/140
Tel: 01904 4217
Royal Literary Fund Writing Fellow
Paul will provide a free and confidential consultation service to help students improve their writing. He is the author of eight novels and has also written for The Sunday Times and other publications. He has been a tutor for the Arvon Foundation and was the RLF Fellow at Leeds University, specialising in human geography and environmental studies. He has a particular interest in all nursing and health sciences but is open to writing enquiries on most subjects.
Erica Sheen teaches and researches in the Renaissance and in cinema, especially American and European cinemas in the Cold War. After a first career as an orchestral musician, she held a Junior Research Fellowship at Wolfson College Oxford, and subsequently taught at the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge, London and Sheffield. Her current project is provisionally titled Cold War Shakespeare.
Bill Sherman is Head of Research at the Victoria & Albert Museum and Professor of Renaissance Studies at the University of York. He was Director of the Centre for Renaissance & Early Modern Studies (CREMS) from its creation in 2005 to 2011, and Associate Editor of Shakespeare Quarterly from 2001 to 2012.
Sherman's research is driven by a love of archives and other collections, and an interest in how objects from the past (textual and otherwise) come down to us, what they pick up along the way and how they speak across periods. He has published widely on the history of books and readers, the plays of Shakespeare and his contemporaries, the interface between word and image and the relationship between knowledge and power.
Derwent College D/J/002
Tel: 01904 323359 email@example.com
MA (UvA, Amsterdam), MPhil (Cantab), PhD (European University Institute, Florence)
Freya Sierhuis joined the department in 2013 as Anniversary Research Lecturer from the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, where she was Exzellenzinitiative Research Fellow at the Department of Anglistik und Amerikanistik and Junior Research Fellow at the Centre for Advanced Studies. Her research interests include early modern English and Dutch literature; literature and religion; intellectual history 1500-1700; the emotions in early modern culture; the work of Fulke Greville.
Derwent College D/J/123
Tel: 01904 323353 firstname.lastname@example.org
MA (Glasgow), PhD (York)
Helen Smith has published widely on material texts, women and print culture, and embodiment. Her research interests are in textual cultures and the history of the book, conversion narratives, early modern women, matter, and things. She is currently writing a book which brings together early modern and modern theories of matter and objects to trace an enduring history of vitalism.
Kings Manor K/186
Tel: 01904 323922
MA, DPhil (Oxon)
Matthew Townend’s research interests are in the language, literature, and history of Viking Age England; Old Norse poetry; and late Anglo-Saxon literary culture. He is also interested in Anglo-Saxon and Norse medievalism in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and the relationship between philology and literature.
Tel: 01904 323361
BA (Bristol), MPhil (Cambridge), PhD (Manchester)
Nick Treuherz’s main research interests lie in the European Enlightenment. He is particularly interested in the reception of ideas on materialism and radicalism. He has edited volumes in the Complete Works of Voltaire and is currently working on the critical edition of the Letters concerning the English Nation. He has previously taught at the universities of Manchester, Leeds and Liverpool.
Derwent College D/J/100
Tel: 01904 323915
Elizabeth M. Tyler
BA (Yale), MPhil (Glasgow), DPhil (Oxon)
Elizabeth Tyler is Professor of Medieval Literature. Her research and teaching focuses on the literary culture of England from the 9th to the 12th century: that is from the time of Alfred the Great to the time of William of Malmesbury and Geoffrey of Monmouth. Situated at the intersection of literary study with intellectual, social and political history, her work stresses the international nature of English literature and draws attention to the key role England plays in the flourishing of European literary culture across the early and high Middle Ages.
Derwent College D/J/122
Tel: 01904 323334
BA (Sussex), BPhil (Oxon)
Geoffrey Wall is a literary biographer. His current project, for OUP, is a biography of George Sand, the major woman writer of French Romanticism. He also has a strong interest in oral history and is working on a compilation of life-history interviews with political activists.
Derwent College D/J/106
Tel: 01904 323338
BA (Leeds), PhD (Cantab)
Richard Walsh came to York from Cambridge in 1995; he has research interests in narrative theory, 20th-century American literature, innovative fiction, early cinema, narratives in new and interactive media, and complexity. He is the Director of the Interdisciplinary Centre for Narrative Studies.
contact c/o the English Department
Nicola Ward Jouve
Lic ès-L, Dip Et Sup, Agr de L'Un, Anc EI ENS de Sèvres
Nicole Ward Jouve is Emeritus Professor of Literature at the University of York, has published fiction and essays in English and French, and has research interests in psychoanalysis, spirituality and self-development, and writing family memoirs as well as fiction.
Kings Manor K/173B
Tel: 01904 324978
BA, MA, PhD (Cantab)
James Watt arrived at York after two years of a post-doctoral research fellowship at St Catharine's College, Cambridge. He has written a number of essays and articles that deal with eighteenth century and Romantic-period orientalism, and which feed into his current book project, provisionally titled British Orientalisms, 1759-1835.
JT Welsch joined the department in 2016 as Lecturer in English and Creative Industries, coming from York St John University, where he was a Lecturer and Head of Creative Writing. His research includes twentieth-century American poetry and the contemporary poetry industry. As a poet and scholar, his work is broadly concerned with the relationship between critical and creative practices and the ethics of aesthetic labour.
Derwent College D/J/218A
Tel: 01904 323350
BA (Warwick), MSc (Bristol), PhD (Warwick)
Claire Westall previously taught in the Department of English and Comparative Literary Studies at Warwick University. Her research interests include: postcolonial literature and theory, particularly questions of the nation and national identities; postcolonial rethinking of Englishness, Britishness and the legacies of empire; and the economic, cultural and literary consequences of globalisation.
Kings Manor K/191
Tel: 01904 33924
Chloe Wigston Smith
BA (Wellesley), MA (Courtauld Institute of Art), MA, PhD (University of Virginia)
Chloe Wigston Smith specializes in the literature and culture of the long eighteenth century. Her research interests include the history of the novel, gender studies, visual and material culture and the Atlantic world. Her book, Women, Work, and Clothes in the Eighteenth Century Novel was published by Cambridge University Press in 2013 (paperback 2016).
Derwent College D/J/207
Tel: 01904 323340 email@example.com
MA (Oxon), PhD (Cantab)
James Williams came to York in 2012 from Oxford, where he held lectureships at Brasenose College and Jesus College. His research interests include Victorian and Modernist poetry; Victorian nonsense writing and its influence; poetic form and metre; and the works of James Joyce and Samuel Beckett.
Tel: 01904 323366
BA (Sussex), PhD (York)
Judith Woolf's main academic research areas are twentieth century Italian-Jewish writers, especially Primo Levi and Natalia Ginzburg; life writing, especially in relation to the Holocaust; the relationship between photography and Victorian and Edwardian fiction; and narrative patterns in European literature.
George Younge is a Lecturer in Medieval Literature. His research interests extend across the early and central Middle Ages, with a particular focus on the relationship between English, French, and Latin in the centuries either side of the Norman Conquest. Forthcoming publications include essays on the end of Old English, the Anglo-Saxon sources of the Gothic windows at Canterbury, and the impact of the Great War on Medieval Studies.
Lydia Zeldenrust is a medievalist whose research often extends into the early modern period. She favours research that takes a transcultural approach and crosses various disciplinary boundaries. Areas of interest include comparative literature and translations, Arthurian literature, romance (especially Mélusine), animal studies, monsters and the supernatural, representations of strong women, the interplay between text and image, and transitions from manuscript to early print culture.